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The Medieval Era
Transcript of The Medieval Era
is the oldest surviving
music work in ancient
According to ancient legend,
Pope Gregory I (540-604) was
responsible for collecting and
organizing chant for use in the
liturgy--hence the name
Due to economic decline and Germanic invasions,
the Roman Empire split into two major regions:
East and West. The fall of the Western
Roman Empire in 476 A.D. marks the
beginning of the Medieval Era.
This song was found on a gravestone as a lament for the deceased; first line of text: "I am a tombstone, an image. Seikilos placed me here as an everlasting sign of deathless remembrance."
Song of Seikilos
1st -century A.D.
Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)
did not consider herself
a composer, even though her body of work is substantial.
Her achievements include: the first composer whose biography is known, produced works on theology and visionary writings, wrote about natural history and the medicinal uses of plants, animals, and stones, overcame cultural, social, and gender issues.
Hildegard von Bingen
experienced divine inspiration
in her 30s and began to compose. Ordo virtutum (Play of the Virtues)
is a morality play.
The Medieval Era
The Medieval Era, also referred to as 'The Dark Ages' in terms of its obscurity, spans about 1,000 years, making it the longest period in Western music history.
Greek music theory consisted of a series of modes
that were assigned specific moral and expressive qualities
Doctrine of Ethos.
This song is said to be in Ionian mode.
The symbols in between the lines are an indication of rhythm.
After the fall of Rome,
Christianity rose as the
dominant state religion.
The sacred song
of Medieval Christians is
known as "plainchant."
Anonymous: Veni Sancte Spiritus
Pythagoras (6th century B.C.) is credited
with having discovered the relationship
between music, sound, and number (intervals).
Greek music theory is the basis of Western
Musical symbols (notes) were known as
The oldest sources of plainchant date from the late 9th century,
so Pope Gregory I role as creator is questionable.
Guido D' Arezzo
is credited with
creating a mnemonic device to aid students learning
solmization syllables. This device became known as the
The Elements of Plainchant:
The relationship of words and music
: do (ut),
re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, remain a crucial
mnemonic device in music education.
derives from the ancient Greek word "
," which means 'muse.'
The Magic Flute--Mozart
The Expansion of Plainchant
Troping-a musical or textual addition to an existing chant
Gave rise to polyphonic styles
Carmina Burana (Songs of Benediktbeuern
: a name given in the 19th century in honor of the Benedictine monastery) is the largest existing body of Medieval secular songs. Consists of songs about gambling, love, drinking, and pokes fun at the moral teachings of the church.
Most of the texts were written in Latin, although some appear in German: allowing the songs to be easily passed to traveling minstrels across Europe.
Troubadors (Southern France)
were poet-composers of secular song (mostly love songs). Their names literally mean 'to find.'
Poet-composers in Germany were known as
meaning 'singers of courtly love.'
The Emergence of Polyphony
Two or more simultaneous melodic lines. The combination of melodies.
The earliest notated evidence dates from the late 9th century.
Musica enchiriadis; first preserved reference to polyphony.
Polyphony opened up endless possibilities for composers and is considered a major turning point in Western music history.
Notation was becoming more sophisticated due to this new form of music.
a polyphonic work consisting of a borrowed plainchant melody in one voice and one or more additional voices above or below.
French composers-Leonin (12th) and Perotin (13th)
The first polyphonists known by name, who worked in and around the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
Notre Dame organum is the most decorated form of early polyphony.
Perotin (1160-?) Sederunt Principes
The Ars Nova (new art): a treatise by Phillipe de Vitry
Up until this point no distinctive regional styles existed. By the 14th century vernacular poetry began to emerge.
Composers became more prominent and less anonymous-connecting most of their works with their name.
One of the first composers to be acknowledged as an artist-a creator rather than a craftsmen-was
Guillaume de Machaut.
Guillaume de Machaut
French poet and composer who was the first to compile--what many music historians believe to be--a complete edition of his poetry and music.
He wrote the first polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary.
Practiced within the same traditions as the trouveres in that his texts were full of satire, love, and imagery.
He established 'formes fixes,' which became the most important varieties of secular song: ballade, virelai, rondeau.
La Messe de Notre Dame
Douce dame jolie-virelai
During the 14th century, aside from the rise of polyphony, which ultimately segued into what became known as the
The literary work of Dante, and Chaucer
Giotto di Bondone
The Black Plague
The Hundred Years' War
literally means 'song' and is usually polyphonic and secular.
Types of "Gregorian Chant"
"Queen of the Night" aria