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Period 7: Progressives, Imperialism, WWI, the Twenties

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Jenny Holloway

on 2 February 2018

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Transcript of Period 7: Progressives, Imperialism, WWI, the Twenties

Period 7: Progressives, Imperialism, WWI, the Twenties
Imperialism
Presidential Imperialism:
1896:
William Jennings Bryan
vs.
William McKinley
Runs again in 1900, 1908
McKinley serves 1897-1901 (assassinated)
President Theodore Roosevelt
Imperialism cont'd...
TR takes over for McKinley (he was his VP)
Presidential term: 1901-1909
"Big Stick" diplomacy
Roosevelt Corollary
--extension of Monroe Doctrine: U.S. will intervene with European colonies with military in Western Hemisphere
U.S. takes proactive role in ensuring power and national security
Platt Amendment
: gives U.S. political control over Cuba
Negotiates treaty to end Russo-Japanese War--wins Nobel Prize
Incites Panamanian rebellion against Colombia
Purchases Canal Zone--builds
Panama Canal
Transforms trade and shipping
Progressive Movement
Progressives sought to
reform political corruption, power of big business, reducing poverty, working for social justice
Some focused on social justice issues (Great Awakening-inspired). This is the
SOCIAL GOSPEL
Others focused on reform of institutions
Some thought solutions should be offered by gov't, others through the power of the people
Government grows, involvement in peoples' lives increases
to promote social justice
Supreme Court disagrees, preventing progress
Plessy v. Fergusson
SC supports trusts and monopolies
TR Fun Facts
Youngest president (42)
First to host black man for dinner (Booker T. Washington)
First to fly in plane
First American to win Nobel Prize
Teddy bear named after him
Based on
American Exceptionalism:
"idea that US had an obligation to foster democracy and higher civilization around the world"
"White Man's Burden"
and
Social Darwinism
Opposition to imperialism comes from:
concern for issues at home (inequalities)
denying independence and sovereignty to others
Imperialism promotes trade and military presence throughout the world
1850s:
Matthew Perry
's Treaty of Kanagawa--opens up Japan to western trade and influence;
Seward's Folly
--1867, purchase Alaska
Open Door Note
with China 1899
On October 14, 1912, Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin when a local saloon-keeper shot him. The bullet lodged in his chest after passing through a jacket pocket containing his steel eyeglass case and a copy of his 50 page speech which had been folded in half. Being an anatomist, Roosevelt concluded that since he wasn’t coughing blood the bullet had not penetrated the chest wall into his lung. He declined immediate treatment and gave his 90 minute speech with blood seeping from the wound into his shirt.
Progressives cont'd...

SOCIAL REFORM:
Women championed
temperance,
some/others supported
suffrage
(
Alice Paul, Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt
)
NAACP
founded by
WEB DuBois
to address racism
Settlement houses
--founded by
Jane Addams
Hull House
: place to help immigrants and urban poor get language training and job


ECONOMIC REFORM:
AFL
(American Federation of Labor) loses ground to violent Marxist Industrial Workers of the World (
IWW or Wobblies
)
Muckrakers
expose corruption and poor factory conditions (
Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, Jacob Riis
)

ENVIRONMENTAL REFORM:
Conservationists
call to REGULATE human use of the environment (different than preservationist) (
Teddy Roosevel
t)
Preservationists
call for ELIMINATING human use of the environment (
John Muir, Gifford Pinchot
)

President William Howard Taft
1909-1913; Hand-picked successor of TR (both Republicans)
Promoted Dollar Diplomacy: controlling countries through providing loans
Not as dedicated to reform; busted "good" steel trust
1912 election: Taft up for reelection by Republicans, TR goes against him on independent platform "Bull Moose Party"; Eugene Debs, a Socialist, runs
TR promots "New Nationalism"--create strong gov't to promote social justice
Woodrow Wilson, Democratic candidate, wins b/c of split ticket
Woodrow Wilson
1913-1921, Democrat
"He kept us out of war"
"New Freedom"
--in spirit of TR's New Nationalism
Different: thought all trusts and monoplies were harmful to workers
Thought more government promoted more freedom for people; in contrast to Jefferson's Anti-Federalist stance
Supported by laborers and farmers, except African Americans (Wilson supported the Klan)
Government grows (esp. during war)
Progressive income tax
Federal Reserve (regulates currency)
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Keating Owens Act of 1916 ends Child Labor
18th and 19th amendments
World War I
How did the war start?
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
Countries assert their identities as nations comprised of one ethnic identity (i.e. Serbia)
Countries build up their militaries to assert their power
Countries desire to take over other countries for resources and ultimately power (imperialism)
Countries form alliances with one another that pulls each other into war
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated in 1914
How did the U.S. get invovled?
Propaganda against Germans, loans to G. Britain, Lusitania, Zimmerman Telegram pushes U.S. into war 1918.
Wilson's reason:
"make the world safe for democracy"

1920s Politics
Warren G. Harding
Republican, 1921-1923
Ineffective;
Teapot Dome Scandal
--oil company drills on public lands
Replaced by
Calvin Coolidge
, 1923-1929
"Silent Cal"
Laissez-faire economics
"The business of America is business"
Had pet raccoons
Kellogg-Briand Pact
--isolationism; no war to solve international problems
Uneasy economic prosperity
Businesses liked Ford and General Electric promoted
"welfare capitalism"
--doing good to their workers with good pay and hours to prevent uprisings
Roaring Twenties
Ford's
Model T
is affordable; transforms economy and travel; creates suburbs
"Liberation" of women
Birth control (
Margaret Sanger
)
Public drinking, smoking, dating
Flappers
Culture clash: fundamentalism vs. modernism
Scopes Monkey Trial
(Clarence Darrow vs. WJBryan)
Billy Sunday
and others condemn "loose" behavior of modernists
Prohibition vs. bootleggers and gangsters
Rise of nativism and
xenophobia
(fear propagated by WWI and Russian Revolution
Rise of KKK--backlash to
Harlem Renaissance
Marcus Garvey and Pan-Africanism
--"back to Africa" movmt.
Federal limits on immigration
Red Scare
--fear of communism and anarchists (particularly labor leaders, socialists, and European immigrants)
Palmer Raids
round up suspected radicals--deportation
FBI formed, headed by
J. Edgar Hoover
, to suppress radicals
Sacco and Vanzetti execution--racially motivated case
Journal Question:
What were the M.A.I.N. causes of WWI?
..and what caused the U.S. to enter it?
Meanwhile at home...
--Vast opposition to war (b/c of trench warfare, misunderstanding of war's purpose)
--Government begins a propaganda campaign to get Americans on board
--Committee of Public Information
roots out anti-war demonstrators
--Espionage Act, Sedition Act makes anti-war speech illegal
violate 1st amendment
Supreme Court's Oliver Wendell Holmes in
Schenk v. United States
says "can't yell 'fire' in a movie theater" because it creates "clear and present danger" exception added to 1st amendment interpretation
--African Americans migrate north, Mexicans immigrate, women gain employment opportunities due to war
--Wilson desires "peace without victory" for all countries--no luck
--14 Points speech
outlines plan for post-war diplomacy
--League of Nations
formed--U.S. declines to join, led in Congress by Henry Cabot Lodge (makes League weak and ineffectual)
--Spanish Influenza kills 40 million worldwide
GOVERNMENT REFORM:
Movement towards more
direct democracy
: Ballot initiatives; referendums
Teddy Roosevelt
, the Progressive president:
"Trust-buster", but thought "good trusts" should be left alone
Government gains more control over business and generally gains more power
Pure Food and Drug Act
: food and drugs must be labeled
Meat Inspection Act
: it's a crime to misbrand meat
Hepburn Act
: controlled railroad prices for carrying goods (i.e. food from farmers)
Keating-Owen Act
: limited child labor
Water preservation and irrigation of West
President McKinley
gets involved in
Spanish-American War 1898
Cause: explosion of USS Maine and
Yellow Journalism
Video--
Fighting in Cuba and Philippines results in U.S. victory
Treaty of Paris
: U.S. gains
Philippines

Guam
,
Puerto Rico
Filipinos fight back for their independence from America (under
Emilio Aguinaldo
). Filipinos lose.
U.S. gains control of
Hawaii
through sugar plantations, voting laws favoring land owners, and usurping
Queen Liliuokalani
The Spanish-American War
Yellow Journalism
How did yellow journalism help cause the Spanish-American War?
Full transcript