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Alejandra Casas

on 15 December 2013

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Transcript of Perfume

In what ways do time and place matter to this work?
by Patrick Suskind
Botteri, Piero
Casas, Alejandra
Ihekwaba, Chinaza
Nuñez, Ashley
Paz, Claudia
Tolentino, Bernadeth
Peña , Catalina

Period 4

In what ways do time and place matter to this work?

Literary Features
Age of Reason
17th and 18th Century

1738-1766 Poverty and Public Executions in France

By: Alejandra Casas
Plomb du Cantal

By: Bernadeth Tolentino
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions
Poverty was a major issue during the 18th Century
Socioeconomic= main reason for poverty
The poor became beggars and vagrants
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions

Poverty was a highly visible problem in the mid 18th century
Over population of unskilled workers led to few employment opportunities= resulted in a serious problem of poverty.
Even middle classes made up of master artisans, shopkeepers, and small traders.
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions
Those unskilled workers became peasants for the nobles
10% of French inhabitants in the mid 1700s were beggars due to their state of poverty.
Poor beggars idled themselves and led them to vice and crime
Mid 1700s, French authorities incarcerated these vagrants and beggars to act as a deterrent
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions
Vagrants were arrested and publicly punished
Capital punishment was practiced in France in the 1760s.
Executions in the mid 1700s were public events
A common execution method for a poor criminal was quartering.
Upper-class criminals could buy their way into a less painful death by hanging or beheading.
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions
Time and Place: 18th Century Poverty and Public Executions
In what ways do time and place matter to this work?
Literary Features
Passage #1: (63-65)
"...there in bitterest poverty he, Giuseppe Baldini, once the greatest perfumer of Paris, would die-- whenever God willed it."

Passage # 2 Pgs(254-255)
"They tore away his clothes, his hair, his skin from his body, they plucked him, they drove their claws and teeth into his flesh, they attacked him like hyenas"

"They had all, whether man or woman, committed a murder or some other despicable crime at one time or another."
Passage # 1
- The use of commas and hyphens

".....upstart merchants
perhaps he would get a few thousand livres for it...there in bitterist poverty he
Giuseppe Baldini
once the greatest perfumer of Paris
would die
whenever God willed it." (64)

Passage # 2
"....they drove their claws and teeth into his flesh,
they attacked him like hyenas
" (254)

In what ways do time and place matter to this work?

By: Chinaza Ihekwaba
History- Montpellier, Herault, Lower- Languedoc
Growing industries and discoveries
Vitalism- Medicine
University of Montpellier, Medical Faculty
Marquis and Grenouille
Capital of Herault Region, Lower Languedoc
Founded in 8th century, no Gallo-Roman origin
13th Century-University of Montpellier, with its famous medical faculty & A College of Law and Art
13th Century-more prosperous with tading
14th Century- Sold to the King of France
15th and 16th Century- A center for financial and legal institutions
In the 17th and 18th Centuries, Montpellier was the capital of Languedoc
Several buildings and structures were built
Architecture was a symbol of death
Innovative Medicine- University of Montpellier, Medicine Faculty & Vitalisn vs. Mechanism
Declaration- Could teach medicine in Montpellier
University of Montpellier- Founded with Faculty of Medicine
Innovative Time Period
18th Century-Vitalism/ University
Rejected methods og new sciences/normal medicine
"Fluidum Vitale"
No- Mechanical means
Used mechanical means, but his beliefs supported vitalism
Passage Pgs. 139-159

" Upon their arrival in Montpellier, he sent out invitations to all the members of the medical faculty... Grenouille found himself as the scientific sensation of the year"

Montpellier- to treat Grenouile
Supported Medical Faculty's theory of vitalism
Prove Theory/ Recognition

"He locked Grenouille in his vital ventilation machine, a box.. Which by means of a suction flue extending above the house roof could be flooded from the higher regions, and thus of legal gas,"

Eliminate fluidum/retain vital energies
Exposed to air from higher grounds- to escape poison
Cure for Grenouille
References (Continued)
"Hurrah for the fluidum theory! Down with the orthodox medicine!- such were the cries of the learned folk of Montpellier, the most important university town in South France,"

Proved the University Faculty were in support
Fluidum letale and vitalism were similar based theories
Against normal medicines

Literary Features
Characterization of Marquis
-" Monsieur," he began at last " I am
thrilled with myself.
I am
overwhelmed at my own genius
.. Admire
the miracle, that I have accomplished
" (144)
Phrases in red prove- Vain/ Narcisstic
Thought theory was proven right/ Get recognition
You were a beast
, and I have made a man of you" (144)
Exaggeration of his appearance before
Looked this way due to poison
Uses term beast to compare how terrible he looked
In what ways do time and place matter to this work?
-Montpellier, at that time was when new things were built
-Very innovated and open-minded
-Time for new theories in sciences and medicines
-Vitalism and how it connected with the novel
-Marquis had a new theory, tested on Grenouille
By: Piero Botteri
Cleanses of Paris
Life threatening diseases were common
People used to believe bathing could possibly make you sick, therefore bathing was rare
Paris at the time was unsanitary
Corpse were thrown in ditches
References toward Research
"And of course the stench was foulest in Paris, for Paris was the largest city of France. And in turn there was a spot in Paris under the sway of particularly fiendish stench: between the rue aux Fers and the rue de la Ferronerie, the Cimetire des Innocents to be exact"

"For eight hundred years the dead had been brought here from the Hotel-Dieu and from the surrounding Parish churches, for right hundred years, day in, day out, corpes by the dozens had been carted here and tossed into long ditches, stacked bone upon bone for eight hundred years in the tombs and channel houses"

" In her mid twenties, with most of her teeth left, some hair on her head, and a touch of gout, syphilis, and a touch of consumption, she was still quite pretty, and easily another 5 to 10 years to live"
Literary Features
"Day in, day out, corpses by the dozens had been carted here and tossed into long ditches, stacked bone upon bone... And then, unexpectedly, the infant under the gutting table begins to squall. They have a look, and beneath a swarm of flies and amid the offal and fish heads they discover the new born child."


" The peasant stank as did the priest, the apprentice as did his masters wife, the whole of the aristocracy stank, even the king himself, stank, stank like a rank lion, and the queen like a goat, summer and winter"
Literary Features & the Novel
is seen because, Paris is described to be foul, full of bad stenches.
As the descriptions continue, the people of Paris dump bodies down ditches and deadly diseases are seen as common
Grenouille murders for scent= self absorbed and leaving them for dead after he has used them
Grenouille's mother represents Paris, full of illness, although she lives in poverty her disease seems to be taken as normal. Further representing how Grenouille survives his disease and develops to be a rough murderer, just as Paris is
Literary Features & the novel
- helps define the stench of people, not like now those with bad odor tend to be poor, back then even higher class had a high stench.
A rank lion and a goat, Patrick chose to compare the king and queen in order to show that even the kings of the land had a stench. Using a simile toward the king and the queen
Patrick further emphasizes the sanitation of Paris, at the time. Going even further to parallelism towards Grenouille.
Just as time plays an essential role to the novel, so does setting influencing events and contributing towards the developments of characters
" And then unexpectedly, the infant under the gutting table begins to squall. They have a look, and beneath a swarm of flies and amid the offal and fish heads they discover the newborn child"
-Shows Grenouille's will to live

"Stench was foulest in Paris, for Paris was the largest city of France. And in turn there was spot in Paris under the sway of a particularly fiendish stench......for eight hundred years, day in, day out, corpses by the dozens had been carted here and tossed into long ditches, stacked bone upon bone"
“The highest point in Cantal is Le Plomb du Cantal at 1858 metres.”

Connection: No one has ever lived there; Grenouille is completely isolated from humanity
In what ways do time and place matter to this work?
Grasse during the 18th Century
By: Catalina Peña
"Grasse has had a prospering perfume industry since the end of the 18th century. Grasse is the center of the perfume industry and is known as the world's perfume capital. Many "noses" are trained or have spent time in Grasse to distinguish over 2,000 kinds of scents"

Connection to passage: Because Grasse is known as the perfumery capital of the world, Grenouille travels there in order to learn new techniques for the production of scent. His primary purpose of going there is to perfect his craft since it is the best place to do it.
" The region of Grasse has access to a large amount of scented flowers; Although some Grasse perfume makers import their raw materials today, traditionally Grasse has used the following flowers to make French perfumes, some of which were introduced to the region from their native lands for the purpose of making perfume: roses, jasmine, mimosa, lavender, iris violet, orange blossom, tuberose, and myrtle. "
Connection to passage: During his stay in Grasse, Grenouille uses flowers such as orangle blossoms, jasmines and tuberoses to learn the methods of maceration and enfleurage.
"The traditional method of perfume making in Grasse was the method of enfleurage. Depending on the species of flowers, flowers were picked at sunrise, throughout the day, or at sunset. Flowers were then left to macerate in oils and animal fats for a number of days. Different species of flowers required different time frames in which to extract the "perfume" from the plant; time frames ranged from days to weeks. Enfleurage is a labor intensive method of plant extraction and is little used today because of this fact."
Connection to passage: While Grenouille is working for Madame Arnulfi in her small shop in Grasse, he learns the method of cold enfleurage from Druot. He considers this to be the most effective technique to capture delicate scents.
" Grenouille gazed very coldly at the town of Grasse. He was not seeking the promised land of perfumers, and his heart did not leap at the sight of the small town clinging to the far slopes. He had come because he knew he could learn new techniques for production of scent there better than elsewhere. And he wanted to acquire them, for he needed them for his own purposes." (166-167)
Importance: This particular reference emphasizes the fact that Grenouille doesn't really care about becoming a successful perfumer but only wishes to learn new methods for his own benefit. The only reason he truly comes to Grasse is to become a master of scent.
"Ah! He wanted to have that scent! Not in the useless clumsy fashion by which he had had the scent of the girl in the rue des Marias. For he had merely sucked that into himself and destroyed it in the process.No, he wanted truly to possess the scent of this girl behind the wall; to peel it from her like skin and to make her scent his own. How that was to be done, he did not know yet. But he had two years in which to learn." (172)
Connection to passage: This reference emphasizes Grenouille's extreme obsession and fascination with the odor of the girl in the garden. He feels he must stay in Grasse to become an expert in perfumery so he can obtain her scent.
"For Grenouille's nose obviously recognized the difference between the odor of blossoms and their preserved scent. The specific odor of the oil--no matter how pure--lay like a gossamer veil over the fragrant tableau of the original, softening it, gently diluting its bravado, and perhaps, only then making its beauty bearable for normal people... but in any case, cold enfleurage was the most refined and effective method to capture delicate scents. There was no better. And even if the method was not good enough completely to satisfy Grenouille's nose, he knew quite well that it would suffice a thousand times over for duping a world of numb noses." (180)
Connection: This reference characterizes Grenouille as narcissistic since he seems to consider himself better than other people due to his gift of scent.
Literary Features

"No, he wanted truly to possess the scent of this girl behind the wall;
to peel it from her like skin and to make her scent his own.
" (172)
Connection: This simile emphasizes Grenouille’s obsession with the young girl’s scent. His fixation on her odor is what causes him to decide to stay in Grasse for two years and learn the best methods in acquiring odor so he can obtain hers. It also characterizes him as selfish since he wants her scent for himself.

Literary Features

“The flower would flourish there without his aid, and he knew already in what manner it would flourish. He dared not intoxicate himself with that scent prematurely. He had to throw himself into his work. He had to broaden his knowledge and perfect the techniques of his craft in order to be equipped for the time of harvest. He had a good two years.” (172)

Connection: This metaphor of the young girl being compared to a flower characterizes Grenouille as patient and determined since he is willing to wait for her scent to mature and learn all the methods necessary in order to properly acquire it.

To conclude, the setting of Grasse during the 18th century matters to this work because it is where Grenouille’s craft of olfactory is perfected since it is the perfumery capital of the world. Without Grasse, Grenouille wouldn’t have been able to obtain the scents of his victims because he would have never learned the proper techniques like enfleurage or maceration. The setting of Grasse also helps establish Grenouille’s characterization as narcissistic, selfish, obsessive, and determined when it comes to producing and acquiring scents.

By: Ashley Nuñez
Age of Reason aka Enlightenment (illumination)
Scientific Revolution 18th Century
Reign King Louis XIV
Promote freedom, equality
Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau
”Common sense is the most widely shared commodity in the world, for every man is convinced that he is well supplied with it.”
- Rene Descartes, French Mathematician during the Enlightenment

“…In this era dedicated to human progress, the advancement of the natural sciences is regarded as the main exemplification of, and fuel for, such progress...”

Connection to novel: “…There, in the presence of several selected doctors from the medical faculty, he locked Grenouille in his vital ventillation machine…roof could be flooded with air extracted from higher regions…free of lethal gas…” (142)

“…There was a great confidence in modern man and his achievements in technology and understanding the natural world..."

Connection to novel: “He explained the devastating effect that the corruptive gas had perpetrated on Grenouille’s body …the pustules and scars caused by the corrosive gas…and even clear evidence of fluidal deformation of the bone structure…” (141)

Literary Features
“He confessed after years of being oppressed by the leaden scent of violets,
a mere dab of this made him feel as if he had sprouted floral wings
…” (156)

Irony (Situational)
“He explained the devastating effect that the corruptive gas had perpetrated on Grenouille’s body …the pustules and scars caused by the corrosive gas…and even clear evidence of fluidal deformation of the bone structure…” (141)

Time and place are two very essential factors to take into consideration in the novel
Take into account the poverty during the mid 1700s
Even the nobles were in crisis- Baldini
Beggars and Criminals
Cimetiere de Innocents= Grenouilles death
Public executions for criminals
"Age of Enlightenment." Age of Enlightenment. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"The Age of Enlightenment." The Age of Enlightenment. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"Age of Reason." Age of Reason. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.
Answers.com. Answers, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"Aromatherapy Notes." Aromatherapy Notes. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

Bechtel, William, and Robert C. Richardson. "Vitalism." Vitalism. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

Bristow, William, Bristow,. "Enlightenment." Stanford University. Stanford University, 20 Aug. 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"Flowers That Are Grown in Grasse to Make French Perfumes." Suite101.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"France in the Mid-1700s:antecedents to Revolution." France in the Mid-1700s. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"The French Enlightenment." The Enlightenment in France. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"Gastronomie." Du Cantal, Spécialités D' Auvergne : Fromages AOC, Viande Et Fromage Salers. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013

"Health." Sanitation, Information about Sanitation. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"The History of the Guillotine." About.com Inventors. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.
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"Montpellier History." Brief History of Montpellier. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"Peasants in the 18th Century, History - CollegeTermPapers.com." Peasants in the 18th Century, History - CollegeTermPapers.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"Presentation and History." ROBERTET. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.
Province of Languedoc, France." Province of Languedoc, France. Discover France, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

"Plomb Du Cantal (mountain, France)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.

"Random House, Inc. Academic Resources | Perfume by Patrick Suskind." Random House, Inc. Academic Resources | Perfume by Patrick Suskind. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

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Sache, Ivan. "Montpellier (Municipality, Hérault, France)." Montpellier (Municipality, Hérault, France). CRW Flags, 2003. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

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Age of Reason
Poverty in mid-18th century 1738-1766
Plomb Du Cantal
“ Plomb du Cantal is located in Paris…”

Connection: Grenouille was born in Paris, but at the most putrid smelling area. Plomb du Cantal is free of those smells, implying a second chance for Grenouille to mature and develop his skills

“[babies] normally cry at birth… the first breath of air is painful and hence they cry..’’

Connection: Supports the scene in the passage in which Grenouille screams after waking up from his dream

“He was lying a hundred and fifty feet bellow the earth- as if in his own grave… he lay in his stony crypt like his own corpse…” [122-123]

“Never in his life had he felt so secure, certainly not in his mother’s belly” [122]

“And Grenouille awoke at his own scream… had his scream not ripped open the fog, he would have drowned…” [134]

Mountainous Olfactory Imagery
“The earth smelled of moist stones, moss, and water”[134]

Rapid, choppy syntax and repetition of the word “smell”:
“ “It is not that I do not smell, it is, rather, that I cannot smell that I smell, because I have smelled myself… since my birth…”[135]

Plomb du Cantal contributes to the novel by allowing Grenouille a place to be reborn; leaving his inexperienced and aimless wandering and entering a more mature and planned manner of seeking life. This shows a turning point in the novel and leads into Grenouille’s journey into self discovery.

By: Claudia Paz
Research # 1
“The Age of reason by Thomas Paine puts reason in the place of revelation, leading him to reject miracles and to view the Bible as an ordinary piece of literature rather than as a devinely inspired text.”
People praise Grenouille as if he was a god which shows suskinds doubt about religion.

“The footman next to him had sunk to his knees, and sank farther still until achieving the fully prostrate position custoary in the orient before a satan or allah.”

Research # 2
“An era of intense contradictions, an age in which poverty, filth, and superstition coexisted uneasily with the Enlightenment's ideals of progress, liberty, and reason.”

Anything that is above the basic understanding is either worshiped or denounced for being the work of the devil. Grenouille brings the two together in a way that makes you question what is right and what is wrong.
Grenouille being viewed as a God because of the smell of the perfume and him being viewed as a devil because of his lack of smell.

Research # 3
“Its purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge dead grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method.”

Perfume critiques the age of reason. For example Grenouille’s perfume making skills mock the scientific advancement and push that believed all mysteries of the world could be known through his belief.

“I must have been crazy to listen to your asinine gibberish. The way you handle these things, your crudity, your primitive lack of judgement demonstrate to me you are a bungler.

Pg 13-18
Father Terrier
Father Terrier was an educated man. He believed Grenouille should not be descriminated for not having a smell. He did not believe in superstitions. He began to feel scrutinized by the childs nose, made him feel exposed. His opinion of the child completely changed making him give him up to Madame Gaillard.

After the wet nurse Jeanne Bussie thought the child was possessed by the devil for not having a smell so handed the child over to Father Terrier.
Gates of the Cloister of Saint-Merri
Terrier having such a high opinion of his own critical faculties ends up inevitably handing the child over to Madame Gaillard. He doesn’t understand how he even accepted the child as his own in the first place.

→ Religion vs. Age of Reason
→ Comfort in reason
→ Comparison of superstition to paganism
→ Conflicts with emotion vs rationality
→ Human nature

“Biblical texts could not, strictly speaking, be explained by reason alone, indeed often directly contradicted it.”(14)
“They were too discomfiting for him and would only land him in the most agonizing insecurity and disquiet, whereas to make use of one’s reason one truly needed both security and quiet.”(14)
“Superstitious notions of the simple folk”(14)
“Reason would have to shine yet another thousand years before the last remnants of such primitive beliefs were banished.” (15)
“He was about to say ‘devil’ but caught himself and refrained.” (18)

Literary Feature
“… and were he not a man by nature prudent, God-fearing, and given reason, in the rush of nausea he would have hurled it like a spider from him.”

Literary Feature
“The tiny wings of flesh around the two tiny holes in the child’s face swelled like a bud opening to bloom. Or rather, like the cups of that small meat-eating plant that was kept in the royal botanical gardens. And like the plant, they seemed to create an eerie suction.”

Literary Feature
Smell as a symbol for sin
“The odor of human is always a freshly odor- that is, a sinful odor. How could an infant, which does not yet know sin even its dreams, have an odor?”

Connection to novel: “…His thesis was that life could develop only at a certain distance from the earth, since the earth itself constantly emits a gas, a so-called fluidum letale, which lames vital energies and sooner or later totally estinguishes them…” (141)
In what ways do time and place matter to this work?
Age of Reason specifically France
The age of reason was a period of time science ruled- rational thought and logic were held superior to emotion.
Suskind uses Grenouille and Father Terrier’s character to in a way depict the age of reason.
It is important to the novel because the age of reason was currently happening at the time which help understand the characters actions and decisions as well as send opinions of the Age of Reason.

In what ways do Time and Place Matter to this Work?
Marquis de Taillade-Espinasse symbolizes hypocrisies of Age of Reason
Grenouille manipulates him easily
Author paints him in a foolish light
represents the gullibility of public
In what ways do time and place matter to this work?
Age of reason
Poverty in the mid- 18th century 1738-1766
Plomb Du Cantal
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