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Instructional Design Knowledge Base

Term Assignment

Sarah Morrison

on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of Instructional Design Knowledge Base

Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning
Pavlov & Skinner
Instructional Design
- Human Behaviour is Predictable
- Stimulus --> Response --> Reinforcement
- "Scientific Management" of Education
- Efficiency
- What Goes on in the Mind is Irrelevant
Instructional Design Theories
Knowledge Base

- Knowledge is constructed in individual learners
- Learning occurs in context
- Learning is based on prior knowledge
- Learners develop schema to build knowledge
- Teachers are not experts, rather they are guides or facilitators of learning
Knowledge is "out there" for students to acquire
Cartesian Dualism
Teacher as expert

Knowledge is constructed by individual learners and based on their prior knowledge
- Constructivism
- Metacognition
- Teacher as guide
- Knowledge Construction
- Learning Outcomes


- Learning must be observable
- Feedback to learners must be immediate
- Avoid errors (students learn what they "do")
- There are always "right" answers
Implications for Instruction:
- Teaching Machines
- Rote Learning (multiplication tables)
- Fact Learning
- Focus on internal processes and structures
- Mapping knowledge into learners brains
- Subjective knowledge construction
- Relating new knowledge to prior knowledge
- Memory plays a key role in learning
- Computer as analogy for mind
Ausubel, Bruner & Bandura
Instructional Design
Implications for Instruction
- Outputs are less important than the cognitive process
- Learning is an active process of constructing schema and processing information
- People learn when learning is meaningful
- Learning needs to build on prior knowledge
- Use learning outcomes as opposed to instructional objectives
- Learners need social support for learning
- Rehearsal
- Encoding (mnemonics)
- Metacognition
- Advanced Organizers
- Method of Loci
Instructional Design
Implications for Instruction
- Problem Solving
- Discovery Learning
- Situated Learning
- Anchored Instruction
- Design "experiences" for learners
- Design learning environments
- Learning needs to be contextual
- Build on prior knowledge
- Learners construct knowledge and meaning
- Learners need guidance as opposed to expertise
- Teachers facilitate learning
- Learners need engagement, interest and/or motivation in order to learn
- Vygotsky
- Bruner
- Jonassen
- Spiro
- Lave
- Brown
- Bransford
Welcome to my instructional design "Knowledge Base." I created this model to organize the theories learned in ED 6221 Instructional Design Theories. Prezi is the platform I chose for my ability to manipulate the content into categories and subcategories but maintain all the information on one page. The user of the knowledge base will begin with the theories in the epistemologically "objective" domain and move into the constructivist domain.
How do I think about learning and how knowledge created?
- When students learn something they are rewarded right away to encourage that behaviour to continue
- Students anticipate the reward and behave (learn) as taught to receive more rewards
- Based on animal psychology (see video below)
What to consider when you base instruction on this theory of learning:
Learning Styles
Instructional design theory based on the fact that all people have learning preferences and building on these will make for better learning
Instructional design theory based around learners' need for motivation to engage in learning and to sustain interest in learning
Implications for Instruction
- Kolb's Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Theory: http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm

- McCarthy's 4MAT Method: http://www.aboutlearning.com/

- Gardner's Multiple Intelligences: http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences.htm
-Gives you a detailed understanding of how each student learns best
- Can guide your instruction
- Teachers/Instructors should provide a range of activities to be sure to use the strengths of all students (note: this is over the course of a semester, not for each learning activity)
Implications for Instruction
- Keller's "ARCS Model": http://www.arcsmodel.com/home.htm

- Wlodkowski's Motivation Theory: http://raymondwlodkowski.com/
- Teaching should be goal-directed
- By discovering what motivates learning, teachers can more actively engage learners
- Once learners see value in the task and learning they will be much more motivated to learn
- Individual learners will be motivated differently (teachers can take time to figure this out to help motivate individuals
Theory-Based Instruction
- There are dangers inherent in theory-driven instructional design: "I believe that good ID practice is informed by theory, but not slave to it. Expert designers will keep a theory in mind–or maybe many theories at once–when considering a problem and deciding on a course of action. But the problem is at the center, not the theory." (Wilson 1999, The Dangers of Theory-Based Design)
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