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Chapter 6: Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities

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Amy Rogers

on 1 May 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 6: Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities

Chapter 6: Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities
Low-Incidence Disability
"Any of the less common disabilities outlined in IDEA, including multiple disabilities, hearing impairments, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, visual impairments, deaf-blindness, autism, and traumatic brain injury" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 414).
Who are the Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities?
"Students with low-incidence disabilities together make up less than 20 percent of all students with disabilities in schools" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 169).
"Students with low-incidence disabilities often have received some type of special education service since birth or shortly thereafter" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 169).
"Students with low-incidence disabilities need the same type of attention from you that other students do" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 170).
- "Condition in which an individual lacks social responsiveness from a very early age, has high need for structure and routines, and demonstrates significant language impairments. These characteristics interfeer with learning" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 410).
First identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner.
Boys are more likely to have autism over girls (3:1 vs. 4:1) and has significantly grown in the last decade (mostly due to better diagnosis).
With 1 in 110 children having a form od autism this disability will soon be re-categorized as a high-incidence disability.
Autism takes on many different forms and severity it is because of this that Autism is refereed to as
autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
- Contemporary term used to convey the diversity of autism and related disorders, from classic autism that usually includes intellectual disabilities, to Asperger syndrome on which individuals may be intellectually gifted" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 410).

Autism is hard to treat as a single disorder but it does have some specific characteristics...
Social Relationships
- "difficulty with social relationships is a defining characteristic of individuals with autism" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 171).
- difficulty with social relationships because of problems with, "using and responding to traditional and nonverbal communication" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 171).
Student Interests
- these students tend to have a narrow range of interests and have little to no interest in other subject area
Student Stress
- these students tend to have a low threshold for dealing with stress.

One type of ASD is
Asperger syndrome
. Aspergers syndrome is defined as, "Mild form of autism in which an individual develops speech but has gross motor problems, intense interests in a narrow range of topics, and chronic difficulty in forming and sustaining social relationships. (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 409).

Accommodation Suggestions
Responding to Behavior
- Many of the behavioral issues can be controlled with, highly structured behavior support programs" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 173).
Fostering Social Interactions
Communicating with Students
- Help students tap into their communication skills.

Moderate, Severe, or Multiple Disabilities
Multiple Disabilities
: "Conditions in which individuals have two or more of the disabilities outlines in IDEA, although no one can be determined to be predominant" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 414).
These students, "typically have activities and assignments that differ somewhat from those of other students in your class, but their work still should be aligned with the general curriculum for which you are responsible" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 175).
These students greatly benifit from social interactions with their peers who do not have disabilities.
Most students with multiple disabilities are inflicted with an intellectual and a physical impairment.

Characteristics of Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities:
Intellectual Disabilities (mental retardation)
is defined as, "condition in which an individual has significant limitations intellectual ability and adaptive behaviors that interfere with learning" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 414).
"Students with moderate to sever intellectual disabilities have needs for ongoing support during school and beyond.
Diagnosis is determined through intelligence tests and adaptive behavior scales.
Students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities have an IQ score of 55 or below.
Learning Needs and Rate
- The amount of info they can learn may be limited and the rate at which they can learn the content may be slow.
Maintenance of Learned Skills
- Students have difficulty maintaining skills without continual practice.
Generalization of Learning
- Students have difficulty generalizing skills learned in one setting or situation and transferring them to another.

Accommodation Suggestions for Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities:
These students are better off in the general education classroom to help facilitate this...
Match Expectations to Instruction - Some of these students are not expected to learn all the same material as other students.
Enlist Natural Support
- Enlist the help of others when working with these students (peers, older students, parent volunteers, student teachers...)
Collaborate with Families
- The student's families can be your biggest supporters.
Access Assistive Technology

Sensory Impairments
Sensory Impairments
are a, "disability related to vision or hearing" (Friend, Bursuck, 2012, p. 417).

Visual Impairments
"Condition in which an individual has an inability or limited abilirt to recieve information visually, so much so that it interferes with learning." (Friend, Bursuck, 2012, p. 418).
These students use touch and hearing for most of their learning
Most of these students have partial sight

Students range in intellect ut, have fewer opportunities to aquire information.
Some of these students vary in their social and emottional development and need to be taught to follow social norms.
To help these students assimilate into the classroom teachers need to teach the other students tabout the characteristics of blindness.

"First take into account the student's overall ability level, use of learning strategies and other learning skills, and attentional and motivational levels, just as you would for any other student" (Friend, Bursuck, 2012, p. 184).
"Then, working with a special educator, make accommodations relative to your classroom demands, the amount of the student's residual vision, and the nature of her vision problems" (Friend, Bursuck, 2012, p. 184).
Expanded core curriculum (life skills) might also be needed for the student.
Orientation and Mobility - Students need to have a sense of where they are in their environment and also have the ability to move freely.
Teaching Students with Visual Impairments will need to be adjusted slightly. They may need additional time to complete assignments, or scheduled breaks to rejuvenate. Also, alternative learning opportunities will need to be planned. for the general class vs, your student with the vision impairment.

Sensory Impairments, continued...
Hearing Impairments
are a, "Condition in which an individual has the inability or limited ability to recieve information auditorily such that it interferes with learning" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 413).
Only a small number of students are completely deaf most are hard of hearing.

These students have the same range of intelegence as other students BUT if their intellegence is tested using a language based test they may have lower scores.
These students have a difficult time understanding the nuances of language.
These students can be socially immature.

The emphasize is on helping these students to use what residual hearing they may have and tap into their communication skills.
Teaching Students who are deaf or heard of hearing...
These students receive their information through speech reading or lip reading so, using a Smartboard, standing in one location, and avoiding exaggerating sounds or words is helpful
Use as many visual aids as possible.
Utilize sign language if necessary.

Deaf-Blindness (Dual Sensory Impairments):
Students with this combination of disabilities are not totally bind or deaf but do have needs with navigation, making sense of events, & learning with a limited ability to see and hear.
These students can have have an average or above-average intelligence.
These students will need a wide variety of survices through out school and into adulthod.
To help with these students consult a special education teacher.

Physical, Medical, or Health Disabilities
3 categories of disabilities fall under the classification of physical, medical, or health disability according to IDEA...
Orthopedic Impairments (OI)
Other Health Impairments (OHI)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Orthopedic Impairments (OI)
"Physical conditions that seriously impair the ability to move about or to complete motor activities that interfere with learning" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 415).
OIs include:
Cerebral Palsy
- "Most common type of orthopedic impairment among public school students, caused by brain injury before or during birth resulting in poor motor coordination and abnormal motor patterns" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 410).
Students range in intellectual abilities
Spinal Cord Injuries
- "Condition in which the spinal cord is damaged or severed because of accident or injury, leading to orthopedic impairments" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 417).
Students intelligence is not affected, it is all physical.

Physical environment - make the room accessible for the student
Personal needs - A mid-day rest may be needed, medication, help with the restroom...
Intellectually, these students have a wide range of abilities and will need to be addressed individually.
Physical, Medical, or Health Disabilities, Continued...
Other Health Impairments (OHI)
"Medical or health conditions such as AIDS, seizure disorders, cancer, juvenile diabetes, and asthma that are serious enough that the negatively affect a student's educational performance" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 415).
These impairments may not be seen physically.

Some OHIs include:
Seizure Disorders
Sickle-cell anemia - " Inherited disorder occuring most often in Aferican Americans in whuch red blood cells are abnormally shaped and weakened" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 417).
Asthma - "Physical condition in which an individual experiences difficulty breathing, especially during physical or psychologically stressful activities." (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 410).

Help the student have the opportunity to make-up missed work.
Recognize & respond to the students social & emotional needs (for more information on this refer to p. 195 in our textbook)
Respond to students with health problems the same way you would with students disabilities...by using INCLUDE to identify needs.
Physical, Medical, or Health Disabilities, Continued...
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
"Condition in which an individual experiences a significant trauma to the head from an accident, illness, or injury and that affect learning" (Friend & Bursuck, 2012, p. 418).
This is the leading cause of disability and death amongst children.
1 million children sustain a TBI each year but most are mild cases.
These students can be normal one day and not the next,

These students might have the same brain activity as before OR might have a loss in functioning.
May have motor movement problems, limited strength & stamina, personality changes, or behavior problems
May have Issues with attention/concentration, information processing speed, memory, and executing functioning

Families and TBI
- Families can be experiencing a range of emotions so, it is important to be sensitive.

Transition planning meetings will take place then the student is moving from the hospital or rehabilitation center back to school.
Students with TBI need a clear structure and routine
Need changes to academic expectations because the student msy know the material one one day and not then next.
Accommodations are the same as with health, learning, or emotional disabilities.

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