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family-centered foster care

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Xu Jing

on 6 December 2014

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Transcript of family-centered foster care

Provided By SWD
Family-Centered Practice


Foster Care

Chan Choi Yan, 1008632374
Chung Ching Man, 1155030051
Cheng Chui Pik, 1155029588
Fong Po Ying, 1155030731

Foster Care provides
residential family
care to
children under 18 years of age
whose parents cannot adequately take care of them due to various reasons, so that they can continue to enjoy family life
until they can re-unite with their families, join an adoptive family or live independently.
(SWD, 2014)

What is Foster Care?
Who needs foster care service?
Social Discourse on
Biological Families

Biological Families in a Family-Centered perspective
Family transitions and adjustment on the separation in foster-care families
Social discourse on biological family
of biological families
in family perspective

SOWK 4510 Family-Centered Social Work
Tam Ka Yan, 1155031528
Wong Ka Fun, 1155023427
Xu Jing, 1155014563
Yeung Yuk Ping, 1155029588
Topic of Training Program(in 2014)

To Foster Children
Attachment Difficulty in Establishing their Sense of Security understand children with attachment difficulty and trauma history

Deal with Foster Children with Intellectual Disability and Downs Syndrome understand children with Intellectual Disability and Downs Syndrome
To Foster Parents
Parenting with Love, Way to Support the Children
understand children¦s learning need, motivation and style
equip foster parents with proper

communication skills
and ways to coach their foster children in studies
Delivery of
Sex Education
facilitate foster parents to learn knowledge of sex development at different stages related to children, and to master skills to provide foster children with proper sex education
care Foster Children who Suffered from
Child Abuse
enable foster parents to learn knowledge of different nature of child abuse as well as characteristics of abused children and to enhance foster parents awareness on child abuse
Light-hearted and Effective Parenting Objective: To enable foster parents to acquire effective
parenting skills
and ways to motivate their foster children to study during the learning process
Parent-Child Program
provide foster children and their foster families with  a
recreational & educational program
to enable them to enjoy a happy day trip together

Q & A
What 's your opinion about the programme provided by SWD?

What is the advantages of the programme and topic?

Did it means it is a family-centered practice?
Definition of family in foster care?

Remember in the beginning we have talked about the need of different parties?
Need assessment and
adjustment issues
Foster children
Children in foster family
Foster Parents
Biological Parents


Preparatory Stage
Emotional need
Psychological preparation
Need for a sense of original family
Extra needs for children with special needs

(Minuchin, Colapink, 1998)
Psychological trauma facing separation: dismemberment

(Mcfadden, Emily Jean, 1996)
Adaption Period
Maintain the bonding with biological families
Psychological adjustment facing issues of loyalty
Needs for consistent in parenting style
Worries of acceptance in the family
Encounter changes in life
Preparatory Stage
Psychological preparation
Sense of security

(Twigg, 1995)
Painful during separation
Experience loss
Emotional needs of ventilation
Cognitive needs: young child confusion "when will be sent away"
Adjustment to new family roles with foster children
Shift of parent's focus

(Mcfadden, Emily Jean, 1996)
Preparatory Stage
1. Emotional needs (McFadden, 1996)
Trigger(foster children's history or maltreatment)
2. Adjustment needs (McFadden, 1996)
Readiness of each members about the decision of foster care (culture: tradition values on ties of blood)
Stereotype framework of foster children and their family
Psychological adjustment on the roles and responsibility of foster parents
3. Information needs (Rosenwald et. al, 2008)
e.g. Information on the background and special needs of
children care
Adjustment needs and emotional needs (McFadden, 1996)
Separation (experiencing loss)
Upset about child return home ->angry about agency for displacement ->develop defenses such as chronic anger, denial or affect (anticipatory grief for AIDS children)
Feeling of ambivalence or anger
Grief and bereavement for those who foster medically fragile children
Gender role ideologies: hinder the adjustment of fathers due to their hesitation to express their grief openly
1. Identity need and adjustment needs (McFadden, 1996)
Role confusion, image and identity issue
Adjustment, preparation, follow-ups of visitation
Gender role ideologies: the over-involvement of mothers with the child and the marginalization of fathers
2. Emotional needs
Burnout and demoralization (McFadden, 1996)
Gender role ideologies: the care giver role on women
3. Needs for support and affirmation (Hudson & Levasseur, 2002)
Needs for support and conversation for doing this rewarding and difficult works
4. Tangible needs (Rosenwald et. al, 2008)
Special needs of the foster children
Additional resources (community service, health care, financial support, trainings)
5. Sense of being trusted and valued (Rosenwald et. al, 2008)
Licensing, abuse allegations, discipline policies, court decisions
Collaboration with different professionals->a way to say and
coordinate opinions
Preparatory Stage
1. Emotional needs (McFadden, 1996)
Being depression of removal of their children
2. Needs of being respected (Kapp & Vala, 2003)
Sense of discouragement and defear of unable taking care of children
1. Tangible needs (McFadden, 1996)
Decent housing
Financial support
2. Adjustment needs (McFadden, 1996)
Roles and responsibilities
Information about the children
1. Adjustment needs
Adapting to the life without children
Visitation (Gleeson & Seryak, 2010)
2. Needs of connection (Gleeson & Seryak, 2010)
Continually reestablish relationship with the children and visitation
3. Needs for power (McFadden, 1996)
A sense of control and regain the sense of right and responsibility
4. Empowerment (McFadden, 1996)
Socializing from foster parents (learn from their practices, especially young mothers)
Working with other system (e.g. child protective system that do not offer a say, increase biological parent right to have a say)
Foster family
- Temporary home (Stay for a period of time)

- Forster children+Foster family+Biological family

(Social Constructive Perspective)
How do you think about foster care family?
Provide a ‘home’ for children?
Provide care and concern ?
Nurturing ?

What is your view on biological families?
Lack of care and warmth?

Social Construction
Foster family = Angel = Very essential role
Social Construction
Foster child & Bio family

Foster Care is meant for children devoid of proper family care due to different reasons e.g. ill health, death and imprisonment of parents as well as families undergoing crises.

(HK study Aid Scoiety,2014)

Social Construction
A pathological perspective and assumption of foster-care-needed families (biological families)

It overlooked the participation and continuous impact of biological families.

The biological families are blamed for their irresponsibility, incompetence)
Bio family
Bad,useless, poor parenting skills
Not a good parent....

Foster child
Need care and love

So….How do we view in a family-centered perspective?

What is ‘family’ for the foster-children?

What is the role of bio family and foster family?

Foster care

Two families are both 'family' for children
As the expert of children's rearing
Enhance biological families' competence
Help the reunion
Social constructionist perspective (Atwood, 1995; Emery & Forehand, 1994) in family centered practice alert us to rethink about the assumption that only intact family can raise health children.

Think more...
What is an intact family?
Is there all the bio families are broken families?
Is there only way to raise health kids?

Can you think other reasons of parents placing children in the foster-care family?

It provide a perspective to help us to uncover the participation of major stakeholders including social workers in the construction of the negative discourse on biological families.

Both risk/difficulties and resiliency should be addressed. (Kelly & Emery, 2003)
Multiple perspectives in working with families.

Emotional losses
Role change
Restructuring and renegotiation of boundary within the family (Emery, 1994)
Supporting the functioning of the re-union family.
Family transitions and adjustment on the reunion in biological families
Prepare for the reunion (emotional, physical environment, Psychological)
Restructuring and renegotiation of boundary within the family (Emery, 1994)
The interventions are aimed to maximize and fully utilize the available recourses for the growth of every family members (Dai, 1996;Lau, 2003b, 2004)
Facilitation of negotiation among family members.

Compared to Adoption
The Adoption Unit finds suitable and
permanent homes
for children who have lost their parents through death or desertion and the children who were born out of wedlock and whose parents are unable to maintain them.
(SWD, 2014)

Foster care for Emergency
Immediate and short-term
residential family care to children under 18 years of age, whose parents cannot care for them because of
emergency or crisis situations
The duration of care
should not exceed 6 weeks

Target Group
Foster Child
Foster Parents
The ideal foster parents should preferably have:
good health and stable emotion
primary education standard or above
readiness to accept social worker's investigation and guidance

Child between newborn and 
under 18 years of age
, normal in health and intelligence or mildly mentally handicapped

Youth are removed from their biological families for a variety of reasons, for the research in 2008-2009, the most common reasons are inadequate parenting, parents with mental/emotional problems or child-abuse

-has been or is being assaulted, ill-treated, neglected or sexually  abused;
-or whose health, development or welfare has been or is being neglected or avoidably impaired; or
-whose health, development or welfare appears likely to be neglected or avoidably impaired; or
-who is beyond control, to the extent that harm may be caused to him or others
According to section 34(2) of the PJCO , a child or juvenile in need of care or protection is a child or juvenile who:

Where necessary, and in the best interests of the child, the Director of SWD can intervene to remove a child from his/her family if that child is being abused or neglected, or their development is being avoidably prevented by the family.
Law and order

Foster care service
1. Application
Application should be sent to the Central Foster Care Unit of the Social Welfare Department for initial screen
Explore the child's situation and needs
Help the family understand the objectives and nature of foster care service
2. Meeting
3. Agreement
4. Matching
Agreement of the CFCU social worker, referring social worker, the child, and his/her family is needed
Match the child with a suitable foster family according tho his/her needs


5. Planning
6. Supervision
The child, birth family, and foster family will meet together to determine the permanent plan
Social worker will provide counseling, support, and supervision as needed for the child and foster family
arranges for regular contact between the child and birth family
Social worker will arrange regular case review meetings on the permanent plan
When a child is reunion with his/her birth family, the social worker will provide three months of after care service
7. Evaluation
8. Follow-up
Foster care is free of charge
Foster parents will receive Foster Care Allowance for maintenance of foster children's monthly expenses and they will receive incentive payment which is non-taxable

Fees and Charges
the Hong Kong Children and Youth Service)
Statistics of foster care
cultural and social factors may intensify guilt and shame of parents
At the end of September 2014, the service statistics on foster care are as follows:
No. of foster homes

Number of children in placement

HKFWS estimates that the waiting list is around 100

Coordination of
SWD and NGOs

The Central Foster Care Unit was established by the SWD in 1982 and it is responsible for organizing and coordinating with the 11 NGOs which providing foster care service.
The 11 NGOs include the Mother’s choice, Hong Kong Family Welfare Society, Hong Kong Christian Service and Po Leung Kok, etc.
Central Foster Care Unit organizes training workshops and talks and conduct Liaison & Sharing Group in different districts regularly

Family-Centered Practice Model in Foster care
The Foster Care Team
Ultimate goal: To plan and achieve permanency
(if necessary)
-family therapist
As Team Leader:
Oversee and integrate the activities of the team
Ensure all team members are informed about the activities of others
Ensure the needs and concerns of all parties are being heard

Micro-level Intervention
1. Before, during and after foster care placement
2.Training for Foster Parents based on children’s developmental needs
2.Training for Foster Parents based on children’s developmental needs
Messo-level Interventions
biological family
foster family
biological family
biological family
foster family
foster family
level intervention: HK Examples
level intervention: HK Examples
Exo-level Interventions
Macro-system level interventions
Limitations of Foster Care in Hong Kong
Confused concept of "family" in the child's mind
- Transition among different foster families
-Attachment issues
-Sense of security

Social stereotype
- Foster children as vulnerable group
Limited service for biological family
Expanding caseload
- 1 child : 3 foster families for matching
- (March 2012) 200 child in the waiting list
- Lack 600 foster families
Suggestions for Improvement
1. Stability of family and attachment building
-Dilemma: separation grief

2. Kinship care

3. Promoting resilience in foster child
-Strength perspective
a. Supportive interpersonal relationship
b. Enhancing self-esteem (Cen, 2005)
c. Ability to deal with stress/emotional problems (Cen, 2005)
- Means:
Normative peer relationship, mutual help group, counseling...

4. Offer service to biological family
Mutual help group, training...

5. Information system building
- The foster care team

6. Deconstruct of social stereotype-->recruit more foster families
Suggestions for Improvement
Foster Care OR Family-Based Service
Family-based service:
(lecture 4, in 30/09/2014)
Encompass a range of activities, such as case management, counseling/therapy, education, skill building, advocacy, and provision of concrete service for families with problems that threaten their stability.
home as the primary site
The conditions of using foster care service
- when apply
family-based service?
- when goes to
foster care?

Flow of Presentation
Introduction to foster care
Services in Hong Kong and challenge
Need assessment and adjustment issues
Social discourse
Family-centered approach in foster care
Limitation and suggestion
1. ↓Trauma
2. Building family strengths
3. ↑The possibility of successful reunification/ permanency

Intervention Models
After understanding and analyzing the foster care services provided by SWD…
What are your suggested family-centred interventions to
improve the existing services?

2. Training for Foster Parents
Training based on the 12 competency domains for foster parents

(Buehler, Rhodes, Orme, & Cuddeback, 2006)

Micro-system level intervention: HK examples
Exo-system level interventions: HK Examples
Buehler, C., Rhodes, K. W., Orme, J. G., & Cuddeback, G. (2006). The potential for sucessful family foster care: Conceptualizing competency domains for foster parents. Child Welfare, 523-558.

Dozier, M., Albus, K., Fisher, P. A., & Sepulveda, S. (2002). Interventions for foster parents: Implications for developmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 843-860.

Fisher, P. A., Ellis, H. B., & Chamberlain, P. (1999). Early intervention foster care: A model for preventing risk in young children who have been maltreated. Children's services: Social policy, research and practice, 2(3), 159-182.

Gleeson, J. P., & Seryak, C. M. (2010). ‘I made some mistakes... but I love them dearly’the views of parents of children in informal kinship care. Child & Family Social Work, 15(1), 87-96.

Hudson, P., & Levasseur, K. (2002). Supporting foster parents: caring voices. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program.

Kapp, S. A., & Vela, R. H. (2004). The unheard client: Assessing the satisfaction of parents of children in foster care. Child & Family Social Work, 9(2), 197-206

Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J. A., Fisher, P. A., & Vostanis, P. (2012). Practitioner Review: Children in foster care-vulnerabilities and evidence-based interventions that promote resilience processes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(12), 1197-1211.

McFadden, E. J. (1996). Family-centered practice with foster-parent families. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 77(9), 545-558.

Rosenwald, M., & Bronstein, L. (2008). Foster parents speak: Preferred characteristics of foster children and experiences in the role of foster parent. Journal of Family Social Work, 11(3), 287-302.

Twigg, R. (1995). Coping with loss. How foster parents’ children cope with foster care. Community Alternatives, 7, 1-11.

Minuchin, P., Colapinto, J., & Minuchin, S. (2009). Working with families of the poor. New York: Guilford Press.

Petr, C.G. (2004). Social work with children and their families. New York: Oxford Press
Joan,B.K., Robert,E. E. (1994).Children's Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives.

Lau, Y. K. (2014) Family-centered social work lecture note. Family centered practice with post-divorce families.

Lau, Y. K. (2014) Family-centered social work lecture note. Interventions in family-centered practice.

Social Welfare Department. From
S.K.H. St. Christopher’s Home.
Hong Kong Christian Service.
Hong Kong Children and Youth Services
Hong Kong Family Welfare Society
Hong Kong Lutheran Social Service
Hong Kong study Aid Society
Mother’s Choice
Po Leung Kuk
Tung Wah Group od Hospitals
Yan Chai Hospital Social Service Department

Website Links
Challenges in foster care
-Foster children
-Children in foster families
-Foster family
-Biological family
Messo-level Interventions
Full transcript