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Rwanda

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by

Vi Diep

on 10 May 2015

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Transcript of Rwanda

DECOLONIZATION OF
Divided among occupation and class
Divide among Hutus & Tutsis
First European in Rwanda
COUNT VON GÖTZEN
REIGN OF RWABUGIRI IN 1860

Based on a feudal basis
Tutsi - aristocracy
Hutu - vassal
Beginning of Rwanda...
RWANDA
Rwanda
By Vi Diep
Hutu
Lower class
Lived by farming
Darker-skinned
Tutsi
Upper class
Mostly herdsmen
Lighter-skinned
Written by Hutu leaders in Rwanda to prepare for future political conflict regarding ethnic differences

Hutu Manifesto 1957
Left in the hands of the Tutsi aristocracy

Hutus subject to forced labor supervised by the Tutsis
Ruanda-Urundi under Belgium
Ruanda-Urundi becomes independent
Rwanda - republic
Burundi - constitutional monarchy
JULY 1962
1894
1895
1897
1914
Visited
Rwabugiri
Rwabugiri dies;
Rwanda left in turmoil
Germans move in;
Claim Rwanda and Burundi (region south of Rwanda)
Colony of Ruanda-Urundi
Outbreak of WWI;
German influence is not extensive;
Region taken away from them

World War I
1914
Germany invades Belgium
1916
Belgium retaliates and occupies Ruana-Urundi
1924
League of Nations grants Belgium the colony
1933: Everyone issued a racial identity card
85% Hutus
14% Tutsi
1% Twa
(remnants of original Pygmies indigenous in that area)

Photo 1 (Tutsi, Hutu, & Twa): https://i2.wp.com/edu.glogster.com/media/4/24/15/34/24153476.jpg
Photo 2 (Gotzen): http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Gustav_Adolf_von_G%C3%B6tzen.jpg
Photo 3 (identification card): http://rwandamultigenrelam.weebly.com/uploads/1/9/2/6/19264191/2080942_orig.jpg
Photo 4 (identification card): http://www.genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/images/4/4b/Kgmc_identity_00025_001.jpg
Photo 5 (cloud): http://vector-magz.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/windy-clipart.gif
Photo 6 (Kayibanda): http://i.ebayimg.com/00/s/MTU5NVgxMzE3/z/hHUAAOxyUrZSvtsC/$_35.JPG
Photo 7 (Kigali): http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/47340000/gif/_47340240_rwanda_kigali_226.gif
Photo 8 (Gikongoro): http://w0.fast-meteo.com/locationmaps/Gikongoro.8.gif
Photo 9 (Skeletons at Gikongoro): http://media.winnipegfreepress.com/images/CNSPhoto-WeeklyFeatures-Jul.jpg
Photo 10 (Habyarimara): http://aheza.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/juvenal-habyarimanae.jpg
Photo 11 (plane crash): http://darkroom.baltimoresun.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/REU-RWANDA-GENOCIDE-1.jpg
Photo 12 (Rwandan genocide with kid): http://darkroom.baltimoresun.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/REU-RWANDA-GENOCIDE-1.jpg
Photo 13 (Kagame): http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Paul_Kagame,_2009_World_Economic_Forum_on_Africa-3_cropped.jpg
O U T B R E A K T O W A R D
I N D E P E N D E N C E
1959 1st outbreak of violence:
Group of Tutsi political activists in Gitirama beat up a Hutu rival

W
I
N
D
OF
D E S T R U C T I O N
Nationwide campaign of Hutu violence against Tutsis
RWANDA ELECTION OF 1960
Hutus score an overwhelming victory!

Gregoire Kayibanda leads provisional government into independence

Party for Hutu Emancipation
Several hundred Tutsi guerrillas enter southern Rwanda from Burundi

Came within 12 miles of Kigali

State of emergency
DECEMBER 1963
Kayibanda removed from power
Replaced with major general Juvenal Habyarimara after 14,000 Tutsis were massacred in campaign in Gikongoro
1973
HABYARIMARA
PRESIDENT
Self-serving military dictatorship
Policy: no return of Rwandan refugees
1986
Rwandan exiles form the
Rwandan Patriotic Front
committed to armed struggle against Habyarimara
October 1, 1990
RPF moves over the border of Rwanda
Minor invasion that ends Habyarimara's regime
HOWEVER...
Habyarimara is able to repel the RPF invasion in NE Rwanda thanks to help of French paratroops
HUTU TEN
COMMANDMENTS
Attributes dishonesty and treachery to Tutsis and Hutus who befriend them
8TH COMMANDMENT
Hutus must stop having mercy on Tutsis
HUTU POWER
Habyarimara's government begins to recruit Hutu youth militias AKA
INTERAHAMWE
"those who attack together"
New level of ethnic triumphalism
In public: the violent young men roar around on motorcycles like gang members

In private: they gather around wielding machetes, setting fire to houses, and finding Tutsis and Hutu sympathizers
1992
Ethnic violences increases
March 1992 - Radio Rwanda spreads a false rumor that a plot for Tutsis to massacre Hutus has been discovered
1993
Arusha Accords:
Habyarimara accepts right of return of all Rwandan refugees
Merge the RPF with the national army
Habyarimara signs a peace treaty with the RPF officially bringing the war to an end
April 6, 1994
A rocket brings down a plane, killing Habyarimara
G E N O C I D E
Eliminate the cockroaches
April - July 1994
800,000 Rwandans slaughtered

2 million refugees flee to Zaire, Burundi, and Tanzania


End of 1994
RPF troops in Kigali form a provisional government committed to racial equality


New Rwandan government agrees to trials before an international tribunal to oversee prosecution of suspects involved in the genocide

1996
Trials begin for people involved in the genocide
Present Day
2015
Rwanda is a republic led by President Kagame
Photo Credits
Full transcript