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Ch. #2 Minerals

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on 2 February 2017

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Transcript of Ch. #2 Minerals

Ch. #2 Minerals
Mineral - a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition.
Anything in the universe that has volume and mass.
Chemistry of Minerals
Element - a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. Over 112 know elements at this point . 5% are not produced naturally.
Atoms - the smallest particle of matter that contains the characteristics of an element. An atom contains a nucleus (protons & neutrons) and atomic cloud (electrons)
Atomic number - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It identifies the element.
Mass number or sometimes called Atomic mass - the number of protons and neutrons of an atom.
Protons - positive charged; nucleus
Neutron - no charge; nucleus
Electron - Negative charged; atom cloud outside of nucleus
Atoms with the same number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons are isotopes of an element.

These remain the same element because they have the same # of protons but they different slightly in nature because of the # of neutrons.

In some cases isotopes are unstable giving off radioactive decay. This can be found in the Earth's crust. Man has used this element isotopes to produce energy power, take X-rays, and weapons.
Compound - a substance that consists of two or more elements that are held together by a chemical bond.

Stable Stable Unstable
When an atom's outer electron shell doesn't
contain the maximum number of electrons, the atoms tends to want to bond.

This is called a chemical bond. The two most common chemical bonds are ionic and covalent. Sometimes metallic covalent bonds occur also.
Types of Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bonds - formed between two or more elements causing a positive or negative charge. This occurs when electrons are either lost (causing a + charge) or gained (causing a - charge)
Covalent is caring so it shares electrons. Ionic is
giving so it gives or takes electrons.
Covalent Bonds - formed between two or more elements caused by sharing of electrons.
1. Is it nonliving
2. Is it a solid
3. Is it made of crystalline
4. Is it made from a fixed
chemical formula, made
of specific elements
5. Is it formed in nature
and not man made.
How do you determine that something is a mineral?
How Minerals Form
Four major processes for mineral formation: Crystallization from magma, Precipitation, Pressure and Temperature, and Hydrothermal solutions.
As magma cools, elements combine to form minerals this is called Crystallization from Magma.

The most common minerals to form are rich in iron, calcium, and magnesium. This is followed by more complex formations of sodium, potassium, and aluminum.
Water evaporating from Earth's surface waters of oceans, lakes, rivers, and ponds causing some of the minerals to trapped in the clouds and come down as Precipitation.

Limestone and halites and calcites are common precipitation forms.
Minerals that are under tremendous pressure and temperature are subject to changing mineral formation.

Talc and muscovite minerals can be formed when pressure or temperature causes the atom arrangement to change
Minerals that are exposed to extremely hot hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300 C) can cause a chemical reaction.

When the mineral cools down some of the elements combine to form other minerals such as quartz and pyrite.
Mineral Groups
Silicate - 90% or the Earth's surface contains silicate minerals. A mineral that contains a combinations of silicon, oxygen and one or more metals.
Non-silicate minerals - does not contain a combination of silicon and oxygen.
Carbonate - contain the elements of carbon,oxygen and one or more metallic element. The most common is calcite found in marble and limestone.
Oxides - contain elements of oxygen and one or more other element, which are usually metal.
Sulfates and sulfides - contain the element of sulfur. Such minerals are anhydrite and gypsum are common sulfates. Galena, sphalerite, and pyrite are common sulfides.
Halides - contain elements of a halogen ion plus one or more other elements. Halogens are found in group 7 of the periodic table such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. This are commonly used to make steal an iron ore composite.
Native Elements - contain only one element type or atom. Common ones of these are gold, silver, carbon, copper, sulfur, and even mercury.
Identifying Minerals
Luster - the way the mineral reflects light. It's either shiny or dull.
The color of the powder of the mineral.
Cleavage and Fracture
The way a mineral breaks.
Cleavage - the splitting of a mineral along smooth, flat surfaces.
Fracture - the manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces.
Hardness - measure of the ability of a mineral to resist something.
Mohs Hardness Scale.
Density - the ratio of the mass of a substance in the volume of substance.
Special Properties
Chemical Reaction
Optical Properties
Optic Properties
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