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Ancient China

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by

Marry A

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Ancient China

Ancient China Prehistory Mariym A. 7000BCE- Neolithic culture developed along the Yellow River. 'China's Sorrow' cultural mingling development of chinese civilization Left earliest records 1600-1500 BCE Geography Today: total land area of 9 500 000km
-agriculture zones range from:
temperate -> subtropical.
-Self sufficient in:
foods + natural resource. Geographically isolated
Externally: high mountains, deserts,
Pacific Ocean.
= isolated from world
Internally: mountain ranges, river systems
= provincial boundary 'gift of the Yellow River' 1st settlement= North China Plain 2nd major river = Yangtze River
Developed as agricultural region.
Rice became staple food of East Asia. Periods Formative Period 1600-1027 BCE
Classical Age 1027-221 BCE
First Empire 221 BCE-589CE
Second Empire 589-960 CE
Third Empire 960-1368 CE
Last Empire 1368-1911 CE Formative Period Shang Dynasty
(1600-1027 BCE) North China Plain
1st to leave archeological records:
-bronze vessels inscribed with history
-100 000 oracle bones used for divination KING NOBILITY SCRIBE-PRIEST FARMER ARTISAN MERCHANT SLAVE VALUE: -social groupings
-literacy = social status
- educated = highly respected -worshiped Shangdi
-origin of ancestor
veneration -seen as greedy
-object of contempt
-like Greeks Divination Gender Equality Shang Dynasty
1600-1027 BCE Practice of predicting the future boys=girls -children took mothers surname
-young married couple lived with
brides family boys = -males perform ancestor veneration
no son = gloomy afterlife -agricultural value 1027 BCE
Fall of Shang Dynesty -script
-social values
-artistic principles:
bronze, ceramic, jade Classical Age Decentralized Government
(Feudal System) Zhou Dynasty
1027-256 BCE Tian - "Heaven" Shangdi replaced Tian= divine form
not anthropomorphic Guardian of Middle Kingdom + royal family Emperors = "sons of heaven" Lord -> Vassal -> Fief -> Investiture Pro: Less work for King Cons: More disloyalty 1027-771 BCE :
Western Zhou Ruler killed by invading nomads
Successor abandoned capital + fled east. 771-256 BCE
Eastern Zhou Lords+Vassals declared self independent Han, Wei, Zhou,Qin... Confucius (Kong Fuzi) Humans = selfish Lao Zi-Old Master Taoism
oneness with nature First Empire Qin Dynasty Han Dynasty Legalism 1. Strengthens state = good 2. Offensive War = good 3. Productive farming = only valid job Han Fei Zi 221-206 BCE Emperor Shi Hungdi Reforms -Standardized: coinage, weights,
measurements,
chariots -Seized back land
-Centralized government
-1st standard dictionary
-Royal roads (expressways)
-canals War=Good! Nomadic Tribe -> Huns pillaged frequently Solution = Great Wall of China! Ballads of Mulan Great Wall Of China Extended 2000km Workers = soldiers, merchants,
conscripts, prisoners "Worlds Longest Graveyard" Tomb of Shi Huangdi 8000 life sized clay warriors
weapons, chariots, cavalry construction 246-209 BCE
720 000 labourers Traps for thieves
Interior workers of tomb killed Tomb unexcavated -> $
Concubines = volunteered bury alive Ruthless
Mass conscription
War
Harsh laws
Burned books! Died 211 BCE
Heir youngest of 20 sons
-> cruel + incompetent 206 BCE- 220 CE China <-> Rome Silk Road 90 % Prosperous Emperor Wudi (140-87 BCE) Conquered:
Vietnam, Korea, Central Asia Confucianism World's 1st University- 124 BCE
World's 1st Examination system
Codified Law Emperor NOT God Mandate of Heaven Kept universe in balance Responsible:
Law, Education, Well being Emperor:
-natural phenomenon
-divine warning Inner Court 1. Emperor
2. Harem - 121 personal
3. Consort Clan
4. Eunuch - castrated male
servant Law Code Guilty Until Proven Innoccent Not Equal officials + women
=
treated leniently Outer Court 1. Emperor
2. Chief Ministers
3. Secretariat, Chancellery, D.State Affairs
4. 6 Boards
5. Courts Education Majority = illiterate
Elite (5-10% of pop.) = literate Boys+girls together -> age 8 Prepared for civil service exam Art of proper deportment + household Period of Disunion - 220CE Cons: no central government
rich= richer
poor=poorer
no maintenance
coinage -> barter Pros: Advance in agriculture
New medication
Alchemy, chemistry, Martial arts
Calligraphy
Poetry Buddhism Introduced by India - 1 CE Appeal -> made life easier 1st Monasteries = banks + hotels UNIFIED set back: confucinism + diff. language Beliefs Diverse - no one specific religion IMP: respect all deities Superstitious 2 organized religions:
Daoism + Buddhism Second Empire Tang Dynasty 618-907 Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Emperor Taizong 618-907 589 CE - 618 CE Emperor Sui Wendi rebuilt + restored China low taxes, honest government Famous Tyrant Sui Yangdi china = bankrupt -3000 harem women
-cruel punishment
-annual conscription Rebellion China =
Cultural Center of Asia Floating restaurants
Fairgrounds
Festivals
Sports
Zoo Temples/ churches:
Christian, Buddhist,
Taoist, Zoroastrians 627-649 Empress Wu Extended boarder to Persia ruled for people "behind screens"-30 years
Only Empress 15 years Ming-Huang
(Brilliant Emperor) Culture, Literature, Art, Music Lady Yan Guefei Rebellion An Lu-Shan Third Empire Commerce MONGOLS Yuan Dynasty Song Dynasty Confucianism + Daoism + Buddhism = Neo-Confucianism "all under heaven = family" 1st block printing Gun powder Inventions: Crop rotation North seized by Golden Tartar can't farm trade Worlds 1st paper money EXP: silk, copper, porcelain 1st magnet compass IMP: luxury items 1206 unified - Chingghis Khan Invincible Army 3 horses each
horse blood + mare milk Conquered Eurasia Khubilai Khan 1279-1368 Chinese Elite impacted most Beaten, low salary, high tax Marco Polo:
"The Great Khan had no
confidence in the natives.." Bubonic Plague/Black Plague Rebellion -> Fall of Yuan Last Empire Ming Dynasty
1368-1644 Qing Dynasty
1644- 1911 peace , prosperity, stability Napoleon "China slept for several centuries" responsible for development of writing overthrown Chinese New Year origin = unknown
many centuries old Legend of Nien Jesuits Manchu Leaders Collapsed from within + western pressure pop.= big
can't feed Mo Zi
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