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APPLICATION OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF RECREA

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cristina pereira

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of APPLICATION OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF RECREA

APPLICATION OF Geospatial TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF RECREATIONAL quality IN TOURIST BEACHES
INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FOR TOURIST BEACHES - ICAPTU
RECREATIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE ICAPTU MODEL
GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES FOR MARINE AND COASTAL STUDIES
RECREATIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT THROUGH GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES
Beach Environmental Quality - BEQ
Diverse notions of the Beach Quality concept
Reductionist tendency of research
Absence of data about BEQ in the Caribbean Colombian
Regulations out of date
Technical tool for beach management
General Methodology
Updating the ICAPTU index
Evaluation of Environmental Quality

Monitoring platform
Data base for Colombian beaches
Calibration of novel parameters
Structure of the new model
BEQ is
the
current state
presented by the socio-natural system that characterizes a tourist beach regarding its
performance as ecosystem
and
satisfier of human needs
, such as subsistence, leisure and identity.

A good environmental quality is considered when the natural system can
maintain its structure and function
and
support
at the same time the
human activities
established in it
Health risk
Marine life
Needs of Leisure
Coastal Scenery
Scenic quality of beaches

Assessment methodology adapted from Ergin et al., 2004.

Initial instrument: 26 elements

Adapter instrument: 17 landscape elements: 7 natural and 10 human (Botero et al., 2014)

Check list of the elements and its categories

Procedure: visual inspection of the beach
Safety and Security
Protection of life and physical integrity of users

Design of measuring instrument:
1) interviews
2) Technical Guide No 45 (ICONTEC, 2010).

34 hazards considered: Natural (9) - Environmental (6) - Physical (5) - Social (6) - Institutional (8)

Matrix to quantify the risk of hazards identified

Procedure: visual inspection of the beach
Relationship between the urban coast and the quality of the landscape and environment

Design of measuring instrument:
1) Environmental Impact assessment (Conesa, 2003)
2) Focus group

5 Beach Typologies : from minimally rigid to highly rigid

Impacts/effects considered: 10 environmental and 5 of Landscape

Tool: Check list of impacts/effects
Urbanization
Zoning
Degree of organization of a beach

Design of measuring instrument:
1) Basic Guide for Certification of Tourist Beaches (Zielinski & Botero, 2012)
2) Rating factor by experts.

Zoning factors: 15 from spatial organization - 8 from Regulation - 7 from commercial organization - 5 from beach user's organization.

Procedure of assessment: visual inspection of the beach with a checklist.
1
2
3
Recreational parameters
Identification of appropriate variables for the assessment

Literature review
Trent of activities for this exploratory research
Practical stage in Italy
Satellite Borne Data Acquisition
Mechanism in which different data is collected and represented

Multispectral imagery allow identify processes that are not evident by simple observation (spectral signature)
Main marine and coastal applications on Oceanography, Geomorphology (shoreline) and monitoring Coastal Ecosystems (maps of land cover).
Air Borne Systems
Include all sensors installed on aircraft, like radiometers, radar, altimeters, lasers and conventional cameras.

Main applications in geomorphology

Topographic and bathymetric LiDAR belong to this group

Also is possible to obtain multispectral imagery

Aerial photographs are obtained from high - medium - low altitude flights (UAV)
By Cristina Pereira
Principal processing approaches
Pre- processing (radiometric and geometric corrections, rectification...) from specialized software (e.g. ENVI©, ERDAS© or BILKO© Menci)

Photogrametry ->
measurements from
images

Photo interpretation ->
identify what is on
images
Monitoring Systems by Cameras
On Field Techniques
Mainly applications in Geomorphology
Topography measures with Laser Scanner and Total Station
Positioning - GPS (shoreline detection)
Bathymetry with Acoustic Systems
Real time Kinematic GPS
Single beam strip route design
Submerged groins captured on a multibeam survey
High precision Eco-sounding systems (~5 cm)
Automatic procedure for data acquisition and processing on field

Better developed applications in the field of beach morphology

Proper location of station to cover the area of interest

Good spatial and temporal resolution

Physical phenomena and human component interactions

Beach profile estimations with video imagery (scheme)
Geographic Information Systems GIS
Platform for integration, synthesis and
modeling of data.

Simple software= gather, elaborate and
display information separately

GIS programs= are designed to manage and analyze data with geometric shape and of known position

Statistical spatial analysis -> appropriate for coastal ecosystem research / coastal hazards
Known systems: Argus, EVS and KOSTA Horus and Beachkeeper.
Shoreline evolution







Raster map (bathymetry and topography)
Coastal Scenery
Safety and Security
Urbanization
Zoning
Google Earth for scientific research
conclusions
Criteria for choosing techniques
Scale requirements (
on field or video cameras
)
Frequency of assessments (
video camera
)
Coast of the technology (
UAV
)
State of knowledge of the technique (
None jet!!
)
Qualitative Vs Quantitative
Precision and accuracy requirements of most geotechniques favor quantitative rather than qualitative analysis

Most of the variables considered are within social and environmental disciplines -> need applied information rather than exact data
Geology Vs Geography
The data used on social and economic geography (applied science) is more appropriate for studying recreational parameters but only geology (exact science) has better developed the use of geotechniques
ICAPTU model -> applied science
Novel approach for qualitative and quantitative data to be compatible and complementary

Future investigations must be focused on making recreational parameters more consistent in terms of the scientific rigor.

This study is the first step!
Geotechniques and Variables
UAV and video camera systems are preferred for sufficient frequency, lower coasts and appropriate scale
Several variables ‘repeat’. They are not equivalents but same data can feed more than one parameter.
Geotechnique favor automation and integration of ICAPTU
Future trends
The future of geographic information is toward online services (e.g. Google Earth)

This study channels research efforts in terms of pertinent and realistic proposals

Insights obtained with the stage at Italy are worth for further research stages -> enforcing knowledge transfer processes
Optical sensors that show differences of colors, shapes and volume on the beach

Satellite imagery present limitations for human elements:

On field techniques are the less useful

Some limitations with cameras (position of stations)

GIS only work for data storage
For processing or generation of new information adjustments on the criteria are required

Network of camera stations can be configured to overcome limitations by the field of view

Atmospheric emissions and soil sealing cannot be perceived by geospatial technique

Some variables related with coastal scenery

Beach morphology has been analyzed with all the geospatial techniques studied

GIS is considered because its tools enable spatiotemporal analysis

Beach Users Density have been successfully assessed by video camera systems

Video camera systems have been successfully used, instead of high spatial resolution imagery
Every view of the beach from above is particularly favorable for beach typology
Aerial imagery used in a GIS environment to detect vegetation changes in a coastal barrier through the approach of parcel development patters
Four criteria for the assessment:
1- Presence/absence
2 -Deficiency and 3- consequence > nature of the hazard
4- Exposition level > frequency and probability

APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES -> those to identify the hazards and recognize patterns in the temporal frame
beyond the observation range and scope
only GIS approach can be considered (integration of records)
Patter of water flow for rip currents have been studied by visual identification from video snapshot
Together with social variables represent the vulnerability
The criteria of assessment (absence/ presence) makes the systematization of these evaluation less difficult that the former parameters
Good spatial resolution is needed
so, video and normal camera aerial photo are convenient

Images and positioning for spatial organization

On field techniques apply but inconvenient -> laborious measurements

Image interpretation offer a quick and convenient identification on zones

Unchecked variables require information obtained by experience social interactions
Availability of high spatial
resolution imagery

Research experience with
Google Earth to identify
physical attribute of beaches.

Information obtained was worth to consider for conservation planning

Grate potential with the street view app for observing recreational variable
acknowledgments
Advisers:
Enzo Pranzini and Camilo Botero

Department of Earth’s Sciences (university of florence)

Lorenzo Rossi - Giovanni Vitale - Chiara Lori -Serena Ferri - Minja Kukavicic

Department for the Study of the Territory and its Resources
(University of Genoa)

Chiara Schiaffino Marco Ferrari

Research Group of coastal systems (Colombia)

Chiks (Sirly - Margarita - Patricia - Zury - Linda)

(Review - Surveys - Interviews - Q-sort - Focus group)
Beach erosion monitoring. Results from BEACHMED-e/OpTIMAL Project

Klemas, 2009 - Klemas, 2011 - Bishop, et al., 2012 - Mitasova, et al., 2012
Cross matrix of coastal scenery variables and geospatial techniques
Cross matrix of urbanization variables and geospatial techniques
Cross matrix of safety and security variables and geospatial techniques
Cross matrix of zoning variables and geospatial techniques
Full transcript