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8.3 - The British Colonial Era

Colonization of North America in the 17th-18th centuries

Jerry Lubos

on 6 February 2017

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Transcript of 8.3 - The British Colonial Era

What was Magna Carta?
The New England Colonies
(pgs. 102-107)
The Middle Colonies
(pgs. 108-112)
The "Lost Colony": Roanoke
Update your Prezi and journal notes using the textbook
Jamestown Colony
The British Colonial Era
View the YouTube video and the following images to complete your Prezi notes and journal notes
The Southern Colonies
(pgs. 113-119)
Colonization of North America in the 17th-18th centuries
mr. LUBOs
Plymouth Colony
The 13 Colonies
Update your Prezi and journal notes using the textbook

Make sure to complete "The Starving Time" reading
Complete your notes on the documentary
"American Experience: The Pilgrims"
The English of Plymouth Colony and the Natives spent 50+ years struggling and compromising - they recognized they needed each other to survive and to maintain peace.
As far as the first
(Sept. - Oct. 1621) - it was a gathering more common with a traditional English harvest festival (dating to the Middle Ages).
It was also a Native celebration when
and a hundred Pokanokets arrived.
There was plenty to celebrate - the survival of the Pilgrims' first winter and a successful fall harvest, established relations with the Pokanokets, and Autumn meant the changing of leaves (different climate than in England)! It was a remarkable year.
The journey:
It lasted 65 days
There were 102 passengers, 2 dogs
It was November with winter coming
Beer was the only reliable drink
Shipmates suffering from scurvy - bleeding gums, lessening teeth, foul-smelling breath
Other challenges - seasickness, storms, delays, tension with sailors

The passengers:
were made up of families, mostly made up from a congregation of English
living in Leiden, Holland
A radical group of the Puritan movement were known as the
and left England knowing it was illegal. They believed the Church of England to be corrupt.
Summary of the Mayflower voyage

At the turn of the 17th century there were a lot of debates on the proper way for a Christian to worship God.
believed the Church of England tampered with the original meaning of the Bible and that anything not in the scriptures was man-made and not what God intended. They believed it was necessary to go back to the beginning of Christianity.
believed it was their spiritual duty to find an English plantation in the New World.
London & Plymouth (England) were eager to finance settlements in America. They issued special grants known as patents which gave settlers the right to attempt to found a colony in 5-7 years' time.
Afterwards they could apply for a new patent that gave them ownership of that land. The later
Virginia Company
secured this for the Separatists.
To pay for this journey, they had to collaborate with the Adventurers (a group of investors) who viewed
as a way to "plant" religion and make money. They would use cod-fishing and fur trading to make a profit.
The Situation Back Home (Europe)
How they financed the voyage
Maps for Reference
The Native-American P-O-V
60 miles southwest of Provincetown harbor, a place called
at the head of Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island) lived Massasoit, a leader in the region
The Natives in this region were devastated by disease (possibly Bubonic plague) introduced by European fishermen up north. It spread along the Atlantic killing almost 90% of the inhabitants (ex: 12,000 men now numbered a few hundred)
Their neighboring enemies were the Narragansetts and the Pokanokets had to pay
. Their struggle was to maintain their existence as a people.
Native tribes traded with early explorers and some came to kill and enslave people by selling them in Spain. They found out quickly they valued gold. So the Natives did the same.
A abducted Native American named
spent five years in Spain, England, and Newfoundland. He sailed back home to modern-day Plymouth and returned to see his homeland desolated.
He wanted to re-establish a community in the area leading other Natives to
, a sachem (chief).
had an advantage of being able to speak fluent English - a dangerous advantage. Why do you think so?

The Native-American P-O-V
March 1621 - A Native named
(Somerset) walks down a hill, crosses a brook, and with men surrounding him salutes the Pilgrims and says "Welcome, Englishmen!"
He was different - black hair, hairless, virtually naked, armed with a bow and two arrows...
He was offered something to eat but immediately requested beer. He talks of
, spends the night, and promises to return.

The Native-American P-O-V
As the Plymouth pilgrims tried to survive, Massasoit and his warriors watched and waited. His warriors kept him updated on building projects and knew that many died over the winter
Massasoit knew these people were different - there were women and children, they kept to themselves and were more interested in building a settlement. They were here to stay.
He gather the region's powwows (shamans) for a three day meeting in "a dark and dismal swamp". Swamps were where they went in times of war, providing natural shelter for the sick and old and were highly spiritual places.
Powwows communicated with the spirit world in a physical matter (cries, wrestling, beating own bodies)

The Native-American P-O-V
Although Massasoit didn't trust Squanto, he was the only one fluent enough to talk to the English.
Squanto taught the English to fertilize soil with dead herring to plant a successful corn crop. Once the corn sprouted, they added beans and squash to the mounds. He also acted a guide and translator.
After Governor John Carver dies,
William Bradford
is chosen. His first order of business was to establish the Pilgrims' presence around the region.
They maintained friendly relations with Massasoit, "paid their dues", and traveled around to strengthen ties with Massasoit and other Natives to the west - this is an early example of American diplomacy!
The Native-American P-O-V
In Summary...
Would this last?
More newcomers meant new challenges
Native tribes fought amongst each other
Colonists went off to find their own settlements
The second generation of settlers grew up with different circumstances. Instead of preserving their spiritual beliefs they sought economic rewards
By the 1650s the demand for fish, timber, grain and cattle was huge. North America was indeed the "land of plenty"
Younger colonists felt their survival no longer depended on the support of the Natives and so were less willing to treat sachems with the tolerance and respect their parents offered...
Native-American P-O-V
By siding with the
, Natives had access to a culture and technology they depended on - iron hoes and kettles, blankets, liquor, guns
They became better huntsmen and had relationships with the
French and the Dutch
Pilgrims traded for their furs but as animals grew scarce the only thing the Natives had to sell was...land
The relationship with the land was different. Instead of giving up property to the English though a sale, they assumed they were simply granting them the right to SHARE the land with the colonists.
Colonists' P-O-V
In 1630, 17 ships arrived off the New England coast. Ex: 1000
arrived in Boston
People settled in New Hampshire, Maine, and Connecticut
Holland purchased Manhattan and established New Netherland
Roger Williams founded Rhode Island, home to Baptists,
, and other non-Puritans
It was essentially a "New England" composed of separate colonies. The
United Colonies of New England (1643)
was established with each colony having their own representatives called commissioners. Its main purpose was to unite Puritan colonies in defense against Natives and the Dutch.
Colonists' P-O-V
King Charles of England made life more difficult for Puritans in England:
were those who arrived in Plymouth between 1620-1630
were those who came to Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut after 1629
Both groups began to compete and tensions rose. Puritans wanted livestock, outposts were created, both brought the Natives into the fold leading to war
And remember...building towns meant more land.

Remember William Bradford?
He saw the killing of Natives as the work of the lord
New England was introduced to the horrors of European-style genocide - killing of women and children and burning down villages
Native warfare was more about bravery and honor of the fighters, not the body count...
“You know our fathers had plenty of deer and skins, our plains were full of deer, as also our woods, and of turkeys, and our coves full of fish and fowl. But these English having gotten our land, they with scythes cut down the grass, and with axes fell the trees; their cows and horses eat the grass, and their hogs spoil our clam banks, and we shall all be starved.”
– Miantonomi’s speech to the Montauks
Native-American P-O-V
Imagine how different it would have been if the Natives also banded together...
Squanto started as a prisoner and eventually became Massasoit's rival
Massasoit would emerge as the leader of the Indian nation known as the
By Fall 1627, Massasoit signed his last Plymouth land deed. His son Wamsutta would assume power and would also sell land (without permission).
Wamsutta and his brother Metacom would later be asked to be called by their Christian names -
Alexander and Philip
The 1610s - 1640s saw the Anglo-Powhatan Wars...
Compare and contrast both P-O-Vs
Attention! The English Royal Crown is requesting that each governor of each colony prepare their best showing of their respective colony! Parliament requests a detailed "report" of your colony's founding, tracking of its continued growth, and key locations valuable to Great Britain.

The reward is a sponsorship by Parliament to take lead in the upcoming war against their adversaries...more details to follow.
The Epilogue of this story...
September 1676 - a ship named the
left the shores of New England for Jamaica with 180 Native American slaves. Plantation owners didn't want slaves who had already shown a willingness to revolt. We don't know what happened to those Natives but at least one slave ship was forced to go to Africa before its "cargo" was sold...
“Plymouth Rock has been broken, moved, chipped away, broken again, and put back together, but in the end it is still there, reminding us that in 1620 something important happened at this spot, something that eventually led to the making of America.”

- Historian/Author Nathaniel Philbrick
King Philip's War (1675-76)
- Links provided by your teacher
- Textbook (Chapter 4)
- Completed maps
Important reminders moving forward:

Indentured servants
- white servants who worked for a number of years to pay their passage to the New World
The Virginia Company of London
- joint-stock of London received a charter from King James I of England for creating settlements in the New World
Navigation Acts
were passed by the royal authority of England asserting their influence over the colonies. Reflected the intensifying rivalries with countries not ruled by the English crown.
How does this period of U.S. history continue?
Movie synopsis:

"Based loosely on the James Fenimore Cooper novel of the same name (1826), “The Last of the Mohicans” tells the story of Hawk-eye, a
colonial settler
adopted by a
family at the death of his parents, as he aids a
British military
party through the forests of upstate New York during the
French and Indian War
. In the war for control of the American colonies, the British, with
Colonial militia
and Mohican allies, take on the
, allied with the
. A budding romance between Hawk-eye and Cora Munro, the daughter of a British colonel, is interwoven into this political story of
war and colonialism
on the early
American frontier
Full transcript