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Foundation of Curriculum Development

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Darren Peralta

on 18 December 2015

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Transcript of Foundation of Curriculum Development

Lesson 4: Foundation of Curriculum Development
Learning Outcomes
• Describe the foundation of curriculum development
• Explain how each foundation influences the curriculum development

Foundations of Curriculum
1. Philosophical Foundations
3. Psychological Foundation of Curriculum
Psychology provides a basis to understand the teaching and learning process. It unifies elements of the learning process. Questions which can be addressed by psychological foundations of education are:
• How should curriculum be organized to enhance learning?
• What is the optimal level of students' participation in learning the various contents of the curriculum?
We shall consider three groups of learning theories
• Behaviorism or Association Theory
• Cognitive Information Processing Theory
• Humanistic Theory
Various activities in school are influenced in one way or another by a philosophy. John Dewey influenced the use of "learning by doing", he being a pragmatist. Or to an essentialist, the focus on the fundamentals of reading, writing and arithmetic are essential subjects in the curriculum
Philosophies in Education illustrated by
Ornstein and Hunkins in 2004
A. Perennialism

To educate the rational person; cultivate intellect

Teachers assist students to think with reason (critical thinking HOTS - High-Order Thinking Skills is a concept popular in American education reform. It distinguishes critical thinking skills from low-order learning outcomes, such as those attained by rote memorization. HOTS include synthesizing, analyzing, reasoning, comprehending, application, and evaluation.)

Classical subjects, literary analysis. Curriculum enduring

Use of great books (Bible, Koran, Classics) and Liberal Arts
B. Essentialism

To promote intellectual growth of learners to become

Teachers are sole authorities in the subject area

Essential skills of the 3Rs; essential subjects

Back to basics, Excellence in education, cultural literacy
C. Progressivism

Promote democratic social living

Teacher leads for growth and development of lifelong learners

Interdisciplinary subjects. Learners-centered Outcomes-based

Equal opportunities for all, Contextualizes curriculum, Humanistic education
D. Reconstruction

To improve and reconstruct society. Education for change.

Teacher acts as agent of change and reforms

Present and future educational landscape

School and curricular reform, Global education, Collaboration and Convergence, Standards and Competences
2. Historical Foundations
Where is curriculum development coming from historical foundations will show to us the chronological development along a time line.
Franklin Bobbit
(1876 - 1956)
• He started the curriculum development movement

• Curriculum is a science that emphasizes students needs

• Curriculum prepares learners for adult life

• Objectives and activities should group together when tasks are clarified.
Werret Charters
(1875 - 1952)
• Like Bobbit, he posited that curriculum is science and emphasizes students' needs.

• Objectives and activities should match. Subject matter or content relates to objectives.
William Kilpatrick
(1875 - 1952)
• Curricula are purposeful activities which are child centered

• The purpose of the curriculum is child development and growth. He introduced this project method where teacher and student plan the activities.

• Curriculum develops social relationships and small group instructions.
Harold Rugg
• Curriculum should develop the whole child. It is child-centered.

• With the statement of objectives and related learning activities, curriculum should produce outcomes.

• Emphasized social studies and suggested that the teacher plans curriculum in advance.
Hollis Caswell
• Curriculum is organized around social function of themes, organized knowledge and learner's interest

• Curriculum, instruction and learning are interrelated

• Curriculum is a set of experiences. Subject matter is developed around social functions and learners' interests
Ralph Tyler
• Curriculum is a science and an extension of school's philosophy. It is based on students' needs and interest.

• Curriculum is always related to instruction, Subject matter is organized in terms of knowledge, skills and values

• The process emphasizes problem solving. Curriculum aims to educate generalists and not specialists.
Hilda Taba
• She contributed to the theoretical and pedagogical foundations of concepts development and critical thinking in social studies curriculum

• She helped lay the foundation for diverse students population
Peter Oliva
• He describe how curriculum change is a cooperative endeavor

• Teachers and curriculum specialist constitute the professional core of planners

• Significant improvement is achieved through group activity.
Behaviorist or Association Theory:
the oldest of the groups that deals with various aspect of stimulus-response (S-R) and reinforcers.
Cognitive Information-Process Theory:
the way the learner applies information.
Humanistic and Phenomenological Theory:
they consider the whole child, which includes their social, psychological, and cognitive development.
Ivan Pavlov
• He is the father of the Classical Conditioning Theory, the S-R Theory

• The key to learning is early years of life is to train what you want them to become

• S-R Theory is a foundation of learning practice called introdoctrination
Contributions/Theories and Principles
Association and Behaviorism
According to the latest theory on conditioning, humans became conditioned by habit and routine and largely lose their individual conscious

About 90% percent of what people do every day is a habitual response to predictable events, so we usually operate on “automatic.”

- Our behavior is conditioned by a set of expectations and reward system.
- Once the brain becomes conditioned to crave a stimulus, a person may become self destructive or dangerous to others.
Edward Thorndike
• He championed the Connectionism Theory

• He proposed the three laws of learning:

Law of readiness:
when the nervous system is ready to “conduct,” it leads to a satisfying state of affairs.
Law of exercise:
provide justification of drill, repetition, and review. It is best illustrated by behavior modification and basic-skills instructional approaches
Law of effect:
responses accompanied by satisfaction strengthen the connection; responses accompanied by discomfort weaken the connection.

• Specific stimulus has specific response
• He proposed the Hierarchical Learning Theory.
Learning follows a hierarchy

• Behavior is based on prerequisite conditions.

• He introduced tasking in the formulation of objectives.
Contributions/Theories and Principles
Cognitive Information Processing Theory
Jean Piaget
• Theories of Jean Piaget
- Cognitive development has stages from birth to maturity:
Sensorimotor stage (0-2), preoperational stage (2-7), concrete operations stage (7-11) and formal operational (11-onwards)

• Keys to Learning
- Assimilation (incorporation of new experience)
- Accomodation ( Learning modification and adaptation)
- Equilibration (balance between previous and later learning)
Lev Vygotsky
• Theories of Lev Vygotsky
- Cultural transmission and development:
Children could, as a result of their interaction with society, actually perform certain cognitive actions prior to arriving at developmental stage
- Learning precedes development
- Sociocultural development theory

• Keys to Learning
- Pedagogy creates learning processes that lead to development
- The child is an active agent in his or her educational process
Howard Gardner
• Gardner's multiple intelligence
- Humans have several different ways of processing information and these ways are relatively independent of one another
- There are eight intelligences:
linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic

Daniel Goleman
• Emotion contains the power to affect action.
- He called this Emotional Quotient
Contributions/Theories and Principles
Humanistic Psychology
• Gestalt Theory
- Learning is explained in terms of "wholeness" of the problem.
- Human beings do not respond to isolated stimuli but to an organization or pattern of stimuli.
• Keys to Learning
- Learning is complex and abstract
- Learning analyze the problem, discriminate between essential and nonessential data, and perceive relationships
- Learners will perceive something in relation to the whole. What/how they perceive is related to their previous experiences
Abraham Maslow
• He advanced the Self-Actualization Theory and classic theory of human needs.

• A child whose basic needs are not met will not be interested in acquiring knowledge or the world.

• He put importance to human emotions, based on love and trust.
Produce a healthy and happy learner who can accomplish, grow and actualize his or her human self.

Carl Rogers
• Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning
- He established counseling procedures and methods for facilitating learning.
- Children's perceptions, which are highly individualistic, influence their learning and behaviour in class.

• Keys to Learning
- Curriculum is concerned with process, not product; personal needs, not subjec matter, psychological meaning, not cognitive scores.
Contributions/Theories and Principles
• Society as source of change

• Schools as agents of change

• Knowledge as an agent of change

Schools and Society
John Dewey
• Considered two fundamental elements - schools and civil society - to be major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality
• Wrote the book Future Schock

• Believed that knowledge should prepare students for the future

• Suggested that in the future, parents might have the resources to teach prescribed curriculum from home as a result of technology, not in spite of it. (Home Schooling)

• Foresaw schools and students worked creatively, collaboratively, and independent of their age
Alvin Toffler
In summary, the foundation upon which curriculum is based are educational philosophies, historical developments, psychological explanations, and societal influences. All of these foundations are interrelated to each.
Humanistic Theory
Educators, teachers, educational planners and policy makers must have a philosophy or strong belief about education and schooling and the kind of curriculum in the teacher's classrooms or learning environment. Philosophy of the curriculum answers questions like: What are schools for? What are subjects are important? How should students learn? What methods should be used? What outcomes should be achieved? Why?
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