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07.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle: Research Assignment

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Summer Turner

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of 07.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle: Research Assignment

By: Summer Turner The Haber Process History Citations Fritz Haber was born on December 9, 1868 in Prussia to a prosperous German chemical merchant. He pursued research of organic chemistry at the University of Jena. In 1911, Haber was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin. During the World War 1 in 1914, he was appointed in charge of forming a center for cross-disciplinary research and served his country with his knowledge of ammonia and other fertilizers. After the his countries deafeat he felt like a failure causing him to leave Germany for good in 1933. He later died in Switzerland on January 30, 1935 at the age of 65. The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gases like methane into ammonia. The process is a reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic. The Process The proportions of nitrogen and hydrogen in a 1 to 3 ratio is correct Stoichiometric ratio for the reaction because some reactions use excess reactants to increase the yield, according to Le Châtelier’s principle.

The temperature is between 400 and 500 degrees Celsius. The reaction is 15% efficient at this temperature but occurs at a rate that makes it economically viable.

Pressure is a significant part in the equilibrium position of the reaction because there are 4 molecules on the left side of the equation below, but only 2 on the right. Conditions The Haber Process has a history with fertilizers and explosives. In 1920 there was small chemical companies becoming into larger ones which seemed to provide cheaper and more efficient methods of producing ammonia. In 1930 American agriculture developed methods for adding ammonia into to the soil as fertilizers. Even though ammonia from certain plants was more expensive to use in fertilizers than some that came from by-products of other reactions, the event of World War II increased demand and led to still cheaper and more efficient methods. Ammonia in the Unites States is the second most important chemical, nitrogen being the first. Since 1940 fertilizers has grown over 400% greater because of the demand from increased populations
Industrial Applications Clark, Jim. "The Haber Process". Chemguide. 2009.
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/equilibria/haber.html McCoy, Sarah. "FRITZ HABER: CHEMIST AND PATRIOT". Woodrow Wilson Leadership Program in Chemistry.
http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/ci/1992/haber.html N2 + 3H2 2NH3 ΔH = -92 kJ mol-1 The forward reaction is favored at low temperatures, and the reverse reaction at high temperatures. To produce ammonia the temperature must stay at a level that is low enough so the reaction continues in the forward direction. The temperature typically used is 450 to 500 degrees Celsius and the pressure used is 200 atmospheres with iron as a catalyst. "Ammonia and the Haber process". Dynamic Science.
http://www.dynamicscience.com.au/tester/solutions/chemistry/cyclesnitrogen/haberprocess.html Zmaczynski , Raymond. "THE EFFECT OF THE HABER PROCESS ON FERTILIZERS". Princeton University. 2012.
http://www.princeton.edu/~hos/mike/texts/readmach/zmaczynski.htm Holland, Patrick L. "A Fixation on Fixation: Holland Group's Complex Cleaves Dinitrogen Triple Bond". Univeristy of Rochestor. Summer 2012.
http://www.chem.rochester.edu/highlights/summer12.php
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