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07.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle: Research Assignment
Transcript of 07.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle: Research Assignment
The temperature is between 400 and 500 degrees Celsius. The reaction is 15% efficient at this temperature but occurs at a rate that makes it economically viable.
Pressure is a significant part in the equilibrium position of the reaction because there are 4 molecules on the left side of the equation below, but only 2 on the right. Conditions The Haber Process has a history with fertilizers and explosives. In 1920 there was small chemical companies becoming into larger ones which seemed to provide cheaper and more efficient methods of producing ammonia. In 1930 American agriculture developed methods for adding ammonia into to the soil as fertilizers. Even though ammonia from certain plants was more expensive to use in fertilizers than some that came from by-products of other reactions, the event of World War II increased demand and led to still cheaper and more efficient methods. Ammonia in the Unites States is the second most important chemical, nitrogen being the first. Since 1940 fertilizers has grown over 400% greater because of the demand from increased populations
Industrial Applications Clark, Jim. "The Haber Process". Chemguide. 2009.
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/equilibria/haber.html McCoy, Sarah. "FRITZ HABER: CHEMIST AND PATRIOT". Woodrow Wilson Leadership Program in Chemistry.
http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/ci/1992/haber.html N2 + 3H2 2NH3 ΔH = -92 kJ mol-1 The forward reaction is favored at low temperatures, and the reverse reaction at high temperatures. To produce ammonia the temperature must stay at a level that is low enough so the reaction continues in the forward direction. The temperature typically used is 450 to 500 degrees Celsius and the pressure used is 200 atmospheres with iron as a catalyst. "Ammonia and the Haber process". Dynamic Science.
http://www.dynamicscience.com.au/tester/solutions/chemistry/cyclesnitrogen/haberprocess.html Zmaczynski , Raymond. "THE EFFECT OF THE HABER PROCESS ON FERTILIZERS". Princeton University. 2012.
http://www.princeton.edu/~hos/mike/texts/readmach/zmaczynski.htm Holland, Patrick L. "A Fixation on Fixation: Holland Group's Complex Cleaves Dinitrogen Triple Bond". Univeristy of Rochestor. Summer 2012.