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AP World history

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Bilva Chandra

on 29 April 2015

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Transcript of AP World history

8000BCE-600 BCE
Technological and Environmental Transformations
600 BCE-600 CE
Technological and Environmental Transformations
600 CE-1450 CE
Regional and Transregional Interactions
East Asia
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East Europe
large elaborate bureaucracy
Emperor-supreme authority over church
Trade through Silk Road and Indian Ocean
capital was Constantinople
Holy Inquisition administered by the Pope
Pope was like any King or Monarch
Oceania
AP World history
East Asia
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warrior aristocrats, bureaucrats, farmers, slaves
Patriarchal society; women as wives and concubines; women were sometimes shamans
Centralized government, power in the hands of the emperor, warrior aristocracy, Mandate of Heaven
pictographs, , iron weapons and tools. Traded with the Indus River civilization
polytheism, divination, ancestor veneration-enforced patriarchy,
trade with Indus River civilization, principal commodities were jade and silk
South Asia
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priests had the most power, housing was based on wealth, patriarchal
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were the two main civilizations, highly centralized
pottery-making, advanced sewage and granaries
polytheism, Vedism-precursor to Hinduism,
Rig Veda
extensive trade with the Mesopotamians, cotton
and precious stones, boats connected Middle
East and Indian Ocean Basin
Southwest Asia
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Job specialization - farmers, metallurgist, merchants, craftsmen, political administrators, priests, upper class women had more power than their lower counterparts
city states and warrior kings, Hammurabi's Code
cuneiform, base-60 number system
ziggurats-temples, polytheism, Epic of Gilgamesh
exchanged wool, barley and copper, traded
to Indus River Valley, Middle East and North
Africa
North Africa
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priests had the highest status, some social mobility
divine kingship: pharoah was the head of the government, centralized with regional governors
papyrus: paper making, hieroglyphics, irrigation, 365 day calendar
polytheistic, Book of the Dead, pyramids- resting places for pharoahs
Trade with Nubia, Nile widely used,
pyramids increased taxes for the
people
Sub-Saharan Africa
mix of cultures with their own characteristics
structures based off of age, kinship, gender and occupation
polytheism
trade with Kush and Mesopotamia
patriarchal society
trade to Cairo and India
Beginning of the Bantu Migrations

Latin America
West Europe
Minoan and Mycenaeans in Greece
Homeric Epics: Iliad and Odyssey
Phoenician alphabet
Phoenicians harvested cedar
Homeric epics-Iliad and Odyssey


East Asia
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patriarchy, highly stratified
centralization, meritocracy, civil service exams for higher positions
crossbow, repelled Xiongnu nomads, postal system, horse collar
Confucianism, people are "inherently good"
Silk road trade, monopoly on silk
South Asia
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caste system, Brahmins had the most power, patriarchal
centralized bureaucracy with regional levels of control
decimal system, concepts of zero and pi
Gupta fell to the nomadic White Huns
ritual of sati, Hinduism, Buddhism disseminated by Ashoka
open water navigation with trade in
Indian Ocean Basin, Silk Road
Southwest Asia
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structure: warriors, priests(magi), peasants, patriarchy
provincial administration, local authority: satraps
Persepolis, Zorastrianism
conquered by Alexander the Great
single currency system, Silk Road trading
North Africa
Cleopatra rises to power.
Alexander the Great takes control of Egypt.
Great Library of Alexandria is built. It becomes a center of trade, learning and culture.
Camel is introduced to the Sahara.
Founding of Cairo in 600 CE
Sub-Saharan Africa
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clans and council of leaders, larger clans formed Kingdoms
the spread of Christianity inspired many conversions, animism was the major religious belief, Bantu migration spread culture
tools and weapons, iron metallurgy
trans-saharan trade, Nubia was a center of trade,
Rome's decline boosted trade routes
Bantu people easily took power due to their superior technology
West Europe
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Greek city-states, oligarchies, the Athenian democracy is formed, Roman Republic
Macedonia-Alexander the Great took over after Peloponnesian Wars, then Romans intervened
Plebians and Patricians-Romans, slavery in city-states, patriarchy
Hellenistic culture, philosophy, scientific thinking
coastal navigation for trade, Silk Road trade
Latin America
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slavery was common, mit'a system, ayllu clans
Kings served as politicians and priests
pyramids, hieroglyphic script, calendar, intensive farming, floating islands
human sacrifice, polytheism
llama used as pack animal for trade
Buddhist culture and Neo-Confucian principles
moveable-type printing, gunpowder, compass, invasions by Mongols-Yuan China
civil service exams continued, bureaucracy
Silk road trade of silk and porcelain, revival by Mongols in 1200s
royal elites, scholars and warriors, artisans, merchants, slaves, patriarchy
South Asia
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caste system: brahmins, kshytriyas, vaishyas, sudras, untouchables, patriarchy
Indian Ocean trade network, trade of citrus
Mongol invasion, Angkor Wat-culmination of Hinduism and Buddhism
Hinduism was prominent, Islam was introduced by Mongols
Delhi sultanate, strong centralized rule by Mongols
Oceania
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polytheism: avoidance of taboos, animism
reign of Hotu Matu'a
outrigger canoes
Samoa civilization flourishes in trade
spiritual state of dreamtime defined Aborigines
Southwest Asia
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high degree of patriarchy restricted Muslim women
caliphs ruled, Sunni-Shiite split caused tensions to rise, Sharia law
madrasas-centers of learning, algebra, Ibn Battuta's travels
Islam spread, 5 pillars of Islam
Arab slave trade connected to Africa
North Africa
Many parts became Islamic caliphates.
Islam was brought to this specific region, most people converted
port of Alexandria was popular for commerce
Rise of the Songhay, Ghana and Mali empires
Ethiopian kingdom was Christian
Sub-Saharan Africa
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Kingship legitimized by Islam, ‘People of The Book’, Bantu (stateless societies)
Merchants valued; patriarchal society, rich women more restricted; Islamic law
Hellenistic thought, science/math
artistic version of Christianity; calligraphy, Mosques, minarets
trans-Saharan trade routes; Ghana (gold), Mali; gold, salt, honey, slaves, ivory, imports
Western Europe
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code of chivalry for knights, serfdom began, royalty was the highest class
feudalism emerged though centralization increased in the High and Middle Ages
geocentric theory, 1st universities formed
scholasticism, Renaissance began in Italy bringing in idea of humanism and secularism
Crusades increased trade
North America
decentralized tribes led by chiefs
Mound builders: Mississippians
Cahokia-largest Mississippian city
nomadic hunter-foragers
Mississippian culture was the most advanced
Anasazi lived in pueblos
Latin America
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tributary system by Aztecs to provide them with goods
ruler was treated like a God-Great Inca, Aztecs were conquerors
quipu was still used by the Incas, terrace farming and waru waru agriculure
human sacrifice, pyramids, city of Tenochtitlan
highly stratified, mit'a system of labor
1450-1750
Global Interactions
East Asia
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Ming declined due to influx of silver causing mass inflation, trade protectionism policy of Qing dynasty
revival of Mandate of Heaven and Confucianism continued
Kabuki there, Summer palace, trade with Europe
patriarchy, foot binding of women, merchants are a lower class
dynastic rule, civil service examinations,
South Asia
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Under Akbar-Muslims and Hindus lived a lot more peacefully together, under Aurangzeb-jizya tax
Sharia law after death of Akbar, centralization due to the Mughals, gunpowder empire
Indian Ocean Basin trade increased
Muslim women had greater rights than Indian women, zamindars held a lot of power
trade with European nations, greater use of gunpowder weaponry
Oceania
1. Dutch explored w. Australia in the 17th c.; no spices, no farmland
2. British captain James Cook explored east Australia in 1770
3. In 1788, England established first settlement in Australia as a penal colony
4. Many conversions to Christianity followed after new settlers came in
5. Increased European trade and colonization


Southwest Asia
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gunpowder empires by the Ottomans and Safavids, rivalry between both, bureaucracy
janissaries-servitude for Christian sons(was an honor), devshirme
Ottomans took over Constantinople in 1453 and expanded into SE Europe and across North Africa
religion was mainly Islam, Safavids were Shiites, Ottomans were Sunni
traded mostly silk and rugs, Ottomans considered themselves a land-based trade empire
North Africa
Conquered by the Ottomans in the 1500s
Songhay was the most prosperous kingdom
African slave trade began
Songhay sold out prisoners of war to the Portugese, who used them for slavery
Slavery ruined the population since mainly men were sold, revoking the balance of gender ratios
Sub-Saharan Africa
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Portuguese brought in Catholicism
sold gold and slaves in exchange for weapons and gunpowder, Triangular Trade/ Trans-Atlantic Slave
Dutch(Boers), Portuguese conquistadors, manioc increased populations
leaders cooperated with slave traders; monarchy
Demographic shifts; more males in the slave trade than female
East Europe
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absolutist monarchy, Secret police,
First Russian navy
Feudalism, Peter the Great encourages serfdom
Women and nobles forced to dress
in western fashions
Key economy bound to agriculture
Devalued merchant class
Limited commercial exchange
Bering expedition in Siberia
architecture done by serfs, shaved beards to show end of Mongol rule
West Europe
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policy of colonization shaped politics, monarchies, Inquisition in Spain
European exploration: start of mercantilism and colonialism
Columbian Exchange brought in corn and other commodities
Hierarchical system based on race and ethnocentrism, women devalued
Lateen Sails, Scientific Revolution
Navigation technology
Renaissance, Humanism, heliocentric theory
North America
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men- allowed to vote,
no suffrage rule yet, John Locke- social contract inspired "self-determination"
Enlightenment ideas push for freedoms/rights of women, women still inferior
mixed populations due to the Transatlantic slave trade

Transatlantic slave trade, Columbian exchange brought in cattle/horses, manioc
use of compass and astrolabe provided by China
Latin America
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Arrival of Cortes (1518); Annihilates existing political system, codified laws, rule of the monarchy over Latin America
encomiendas, mit'a system, social hierarchy based on race
Wheel brought in (levers, pulleys), Brought in writing system (for Incan empire)
Christianity was brought in, mix of Spanish and Western art, syncretism:Virgin of Guadalupe
trade of crops and haciendas, experienced European control due to mercantilism
1750 CE-1900 CE
Industrialization and Global Integration
East Asia

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Abdication of Qing,unification of China
Japan: abolishes feudalism, civil code, regional governors, Nationalism = huge force
Provide labor for plantations/mines Meiji Restoration- quickly industrialized in Japan, Opium trade had a negative impact on China
Rigid Tokogawa hierarchy ended in Japan,
Middle class grows power, high taxation on the poor
British introduced opium to China, Westernization of Japan- steamships/railroads
secular world becomes more dominant, influx of Opium in China increases crime and social issues
South Asia
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fracturing of the Mughal empire, the rise of Gandhi, British colonization
British East India Company had a lot of control over India's resources, european traders
British decreased strife between Hindus and Muslims, sati was abolished, more racially based hierarchy, Indian Revolt against British resulted in the Crown taking over
European education promotes science/ invention, increase of infrastructure
Hindu, Islam, Buddhism,Christianity (though not
very popular)
Oceania
Polynesian Maori came under English control
Full scale settlement of Australia began in 1788
Aborigines were dispossessed and driven into the bush
Maori gained access to weapons
US overthrew Queen Lililuokalani in Hawaii (1893)
1898-US annexation of Hawaii
Southwest Asia
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Decline of the Ottomans, Young Turks began to gain power, loss of wars and land
Women were devalued but had some property rights , Tanzimat reforms provided for greater religious tolerance
increasingly isolated, but affected by some Western science and technology
Islam dominated as the main religion, tensions between Sunni vs. Shi’a still occur
No longer as dominant in trading
North Africa
Barbary states ruled by Ottomans but increasingly autonomous
French colonization of Algeria (1830-1840s)
"white man's burden" philosophy with colonization
Barbary corsairs threatened Western shipping
Led to Barbary Wars
Political/economic domination of Egypt due to the construction of the Suez Canal
Sub-Saharan Africa
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Re-colonization of Africa; Sierra Leone, Liberia ; coastal kingdoms ruled by warlords/merchants
End of Atlantic Slave Trade Islamic states of
West Africa still trade slaves; rely on slave trade more;
increase in population, racially segregationist policies
Industrialization; guns,textiles, alcohol, Enlightenment
Islam, Christianity,animism, ancestor worship-syncretism
East Europe
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Russia – Tsar continued to be all
powerful, Prussia – remained militaristic and
authoritarian, Duma was created, but had no real power
Trade deficit lessened by increasing
serf output, not improving industry
Emancipation of serfs-1861
but most are indebted, life doesn’t
improve, increased literacy, pogroms against Jews
Nationalist pride through dictionaries, histories, folktales, music, imported Western goods
Russification – all Russians had to
convert to Orthodoxy
West Europe
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Emerging constitutional monarchies, rivalries between nations strong
mercantilism increased, mass production of goods
class diversification, modern feminist movements, migration to the Americas
Industrial Revolution, Assembly line, mass
production, colonization involved interactions with regions such as India and the Americas
beginning of modern art—abstract art, cubism, impressionism
North America
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1776- Declaration of Independence, 1787- Constitution (three branches or
checks and balance)
one of the top 5 trading empires, benefited through
colonization, exploited natural resources
Women’s sphere moving toward
suffrage, class determined by races, huge middle class
textile factory system brought from
Europe, technological innovation- spurred
industrialization
Enlightenment transitioning into romanticism, 1840's realism emerged
Latin America
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colonization, high nationalism and wars for independence from European powers
Europe exploits resources and profits, monoculture
primitive anesthesia, tools for probing, incision, organ extraction, blood letting
Christianity was predominant, mix of original
Spanish and Western art
continued hierarchy, creoles, mestizos, race based
1900 CE- Today
Accelerating Global Change and Realignments
East Asia
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Decolonization from Europe
USSR/China split, birth of People's Republic of China Japan: parliamentary capitalism
Modernization of Japan,Taiwan, South Korea
Post- industrial/high-tech, Less affected by global depression
Rise of feminism- suffrage, women worked due to WWII, Foot binding outlawed
Atomic bombs, nuclear weaponry
militarism in Japan, computer, internet,
biotechnology and genetic science
Religious fundamentalism, western appreciation for
science spread
South Asia
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Nationalism, Indian National Congres, independence from British in 1947, civil war divided into India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Indo-Pakistani rivalry, patriarchy, caste system
Western high culture and mass media, science and technology
muslim minority in India, nuclear weapons program
globalization of trade increased GDP
Oceania
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor during WW2
Solomon Islands campaign occurred in New Zealand in WW2
popular location for underground nuclear tests
coups in Fiji
tensions between ethnic and Indo-Fijians
Southwest Asia
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Young Turks took over after ousting the Sultan, mandate system, nationalization of Suez Canal, Iranian Revolution, the Arab Spring
sports professionalized, mass media, Western high culture in many areas
women still oppressed, vote extended to women, ethnic violence-Arab-Israeli conflict
Islam dominated, secularism increased with the Young Turks
Oil based economies, OPEC,
Iran, Iraq- Oil supply
North Africa
1952 Egyptian revolution
"arab socialism" emerged in the Nasser era
British administration in Egypt ended in 1914 though military forces remained until 1956
European interests continued in the Suez Canal
nationalist sentiments grew for independence
North African states were more homogenous than Sub-Saharan ones so transition to independence was easier
Sub-Saharan Africa
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Decolonization of Africa; attempt at representative government; involved in
WWII;
poverty stricken countries; international debt, globalization
apartheid in South Africa, clear black majority in regions, anti-apartheid movements
Western high culture and mass media, slow technological development
Islam, Christianity,animism, atheists
East Europe
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Tsarist regime falls apart, army in full retreat
USSR formed – collapses following cold war, authoritarian regime
Economies nationalized, collectivization under state planned control, Soviet welfare system
Muslim population growth, Lenin’s New Economic Policy, gave freedom to small business, increased literacy rates
Cold War – Arms race, space race, scientists highly respected, Research heavily funded
Art-attacked western style, classical arts, patriotism
West Europe
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Empires broken up, colonies independent,
self determination, experiments with socialism/communism, eventually NATO is created
Feminism, attempts to end racism,
persecution of jews, minorities, meritocracy
nuclear power, Internet, mass media, New uses of concrete and glass
anxiety in high culture, Freudian thought,
Globally interconnected, capitalism
North America
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remained democracy, 1920-women's suffrage, spheres of influence
highly industrialized, earned a lot of profit
with imports/exports, NAFTA
class determined by wealth, patriarchal societies, women have more job opportunity in the modern period
more advance navy, militarily equipments,
creators and producers of luxury products
existentialism, melting pot of different religions, mass media
Latin America
Series of juntas/dictatorships
Difficulty industrializing
Heavily dependent on natural resources
Combination of European indigenous, and Christian arts.
Atheism agnostics increased
Legacy of Catholicism
Society more free to choose religion
more egalitarianism
By: Bilva Chandra
Pearl Harbor
The hijab-a symbol of patriarchy
The Roman Republic
Polynesian migrations across the Pacific
lack of domesticated animals
largely in isolation due to location
largely nomadic
limited agricultural development
system with chiefs
centralization
stratified societies based on chiefdoms
The leaders are related to divinity (priests)
Hierarchical system
Road system
Chinampas
animism and polytheism
patriarchal society
East Europe
Animist – gods of sun, thunder, wind and fire
6th century Justinian rule – restore Rome
original sin devalues women
delegation of responsibility
hierarchical system
bureaucratic codification
North America
no central authority
-pastoral/hunter gather societies- tribes
- agriculture- have lots of great farmers, producing their regional crops
-class determined by age (the oldest receive more respect and power)
-matrilineal societies
people develop own farming equipments
North America
-depending on regions (tribal societies)
-different region had different way of controlling
their people
-no central authority
-pastoral/hunter gather societies- tribes
- agriculture- have lots of great farmers,
producing their regional crops
-class determined by age (the oldest receive more
respect and power)
-people who owed a lot of horses, equipments,
crops, families
-matrilineal societies
East Europe
Religion based hierarchical system
Delegation of responsibility
Bureaucratic codification
Hagia Sophia
Mosaic
Serfdom began in the Middle Age
The Ritual of sati.
depiction of devshirme in the Ottoman Empire
Lateen Sails
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