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Australia in the 1990's
Transcript of Australia in the 1990's
Satellite or 'pay' television was introduced in 1995. Pay TV enabled Australians to access a much greater range of sport, news, movie and entertainment channels, 24 hours a day. High unemployment remained a problem in the 1990s. Information technology, however, had become a major global industry and many new computer-related jobs were created. In 1996, it was estimated that over 100 000 Australians worked in the computer industry, in occupations ranging from computer programming to IT consulting. In the late 1990s, the internet had a revolutionary effect on the everyday lives of many Australians. Politics In December 1991, Paul Keating successfully challenged Bob Hawke to become Australia's 24th Prime Minister. Keating was a tough politician and an ambitious leader who was known for his colourful parliamentary speeches - once famously referring to the Opposition party as `scumbags'.
Throughout his term in power, Keating introduced Aboriginal Land Rights legislation and instigated national debate on the Republic issue. After four years, however, Australians had grown tired of economic hardship and record-high unemployment levels. In March 1996, Keating's Labor Party was defeated by John Howard's Liberal National coalition. Influence of other
Countries Up until World War II, Britain remained the dominating cultural influence in Australia. Britons also dominated the make-up of Australian society - most of Australia's citizens were either born in Britain, or had British descendants.
Before 1945, many people, including Australians themselves, considered Australia to be nothing more than a white British colony. During this period of Australia's history, our modes of entertainment, food, fashion, sporting culture and our social values and attitudes were largely dictated by British culture. The American way of life was projected further into Australia via popular culture, it would rapidly alter the ways we spent our money, entertained ourselves, dressed and socialized. American fast food chains like McDonald's, KFC and Burger King continued to prosper throughout the 1990s. More and more new fast food stores opened around Australia, many of which offered convenient new features, such as a drive-through service.
Supermarkets in the 1990s continued to follow American trends by extending their opening hours and expanding their range of products. Entertainment In 1990, it was estimated that Australians owned 29.1 million radio sets.
Rather than forming a primary source of entertainment, however,
by the 1990s radio had become the background to everyday life -
people would listen to the radio while performing other activities
like driving, cooking, working or studying. By the end of the decade, personal computers had become a major source of home entertainment.
Australians used computers to surf the internet, browse and purchase goods and email or chat with friends. Computers were also used to play music, watch movies and download music, images and text.
Computer games were also a popular in the 1990s. Sport in the 1990s
Olympic Games in the 1990s
Australian athletes achieved pleasing results at both the 1992 Barcelona Olympics and 1996 Atlanta Olympics. In Barcelona, Australia won 27 medals, including seven gold. In Atlanta, the team again excelled, bringing home 41 medals, including nine gold.
Cricket in the 1990s
Cricket participation rates were high in Australia during the 1990s. Thousands of people were registered in local club cricket, or just played casual backyard matches.
Football in the 1990s
Australian Rules football and rugby league both continued their national expansion in the 1990s. The national rugby league competition, for example, was bolstered by teams from Perth, North Queensland and Auckland. The Victorian Football League (AFL) was renamed the Australian Football League (AFL) in 1990. During the decade, teams from Fremantle and Adelaide joined the national league. Celebrity sportspeople in the 1990s
Kieren Perkins, Ian Thorpe, Cathy Freeman, Louise Sauvage. Australian cinema industry in the 1990s
For much of the 1980s and early-1990s, audience numbers in Australian cinemas dwindled. The economic recession, coupled with the effect of new technology like the video cassette recorder (VCR), meant that staying at home to watch a movie was a cheaper, more appealing option than going to the cinema.
American and British influence on Australian cinema
While many Australian films achieved box office success during the 1990s, at the close of the decade, Australian films constituted just 15 percent of those watched in cinemas. American-made films remained, by far, the biggest crowd-pullers. Among the highest rating American films of the decade were Pretty Woman (1990), Jurassic Park (1993), Forrest Gump (1994), Titanic (1997), and Star Wars: The Phantom Menace (1999). The highest rating British film of the decade was The Full Monty (1997). Fashion in the 1990s - Overview
The 1990s is sometimes called the 'anti-fashion' decade. Australians could choose from a diverse range of clothing trends, most of which were a reaction against the materialism and excess of the 1980s. In particular, young people drew inspiration from a variety of sources, rather than following one particular 'look.'
Many styles were subdued and minimalist, using simple fabrics and uncluttered designs. Grunge and retro fashion, allowed the wearer to express their individuality by choosing from an eclectic mix of styles. Grunge combined the masculine with the feminine and hippie with punk, while retro mixed new, modern clothes with items from previous decades. Australian music in the 1990s
Mainstream music in the 1990s
Electronic, or computer-generated, sound was a common fixture of the Australian music scene in the 1990s. Throughout the decade, young people gathered in nightclubs and danced to up-tempo electronic dance music styles like 'house', 'techno' and 'trance'.
Electronic music merged with pop in the 1990s. The electro-pop sound is epitomised by successful Australian musical duo Savage Garden, who combined catchy melodies with dance beats and synthesised sounds. In 1997, Savage Garden achieved international success when their single Truly, Madly, Deeply reached number one on the American music charts.