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Unit 4 Prezi
Transcript of Unit 4 Prezi
Range of motion (ROM) studies assess joint motion and provide a measure of overall flexibility. You may have heard of people who are “double-jointed.” This does not mean that they have twice as many joints as you do; rather, the ones they do have are unusually flexible Possible movements at a joint: o Depression and elevation
o Rotation and circumduction
o Flexion and extension (and hyperextension)
o Abduction and adduction
o Plantar flexion and dorsiflexion
In this activity you will use a device called a goniometer to measure the angles resulting from the movement of various joints in the body. Activity 4.2.1: Muscle Rules There are 206 bones in the human body, but over 600 skeletal muscles allow our bodies to move in different directions. All movement in the human body, from wiggling a toe or swimming a mile to eating and digesting a sandwich, is the result of muscle action. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones with tough cords or sheets called tendons and these bones meet other bones at junctions called joints. The contraction or shortening of muscles pulls on bone and moves the body There are three types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth Muscle
Skeleton Muscle Cardiac Muscle 6 Muscle Rules Rule #1: Muscles must have at least two attachments and must cross at least one joint.
Rule #2: Muscles always “pull” and get shorter.
Rule #3: The attachment that moves is known as the insertion and the attachment that remains stationary is known as the origin
Rule #4: Muscles that decrease the angle between ventral surfaces of the body are known as flexors. Muscles that increase the angle between ventral surfaces of the body are known as extensors
Rule #5: Muscles work in opposing pairs.
Rule #6: Muscle striations point to the attachments and show the direction of pull.
Activity 4.2.2: Building a Better Body This activity will explore the anatomy of the human chest and build this series of muscles on your Maniken Each muscle has a set of unique attachments on the body and this structure directly links the muscle to the action it controls Intercostals
Activity 4.2.6: You’ve Got Nerve
Neurons are packed together in wiring called nerves, and these nerves serve as a highway for electrical messages. Efferent nerves take messages from the brain to our tissues and afferent nerves are on the other side of the road, bringing messages from the body to the control center. This highway of neurons is buried deep in the body Spinal nerves are a vital part of the peripheral nervous system. They connect the central nervous system to sensory receptors, muscles and glands in all parts of the body. Depending on their points of connection with the central nervous system, nerves fall into two categories. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves connect directly with the brain and bring signals to and from the head and neck. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves supply the rest of the body and connect directly with the spinal cord. Nerve Roots Radial Nerve Ulnar Nerve Activity 4.3.1: The Heart of the Matter Movement by muscles pulling on bones would not be possible if blood did not supply this tissue with the key resource, oxygen. The flow of blood around the body ensures that essential nutrients are delivered and wastes are moved away for disposal. At the center of this system is the amazing pump, the human heart A series of tubes, or vessels, serve as the highways
for the transportation of blood. Arteries are responsible
for carrying blood away from the heart and veins are responsible
for returning blood back to the heart. By looking at how blood is
pumped in and out of the heart, you will begin to see how the structure
of arteries and veins relates to the stress each vessel has to endure.
Project 4.3.2: Varicose Veins
An estimated 62,000 miles of blood vessels ensure that oxygen
and nutrients are delivered to the trillions of cells in your
body, and that waste products are taken away for disposal. If
all of these blood vessels were laid out end to end, they
would wrap around the Earth twice! This activity will explore the structure and function of veins and arteries by investigating the cause of varicose veins. Cross Section of Artey Cross Section of Vein Cross Section of Capillary structural changes occur so that venous valves lose function and allow blood to flow backwards. This causes an increase in venous pressure leading to further injury and expansion of smaller veins, medium veins, and bigger veins.
Varicose Veins Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries! Activity 4.3.3: Go With the Flow
Arteries flow away from the heart and branch into smaller vessels called arterioles. These arterioles lead into the capillary beds, thin nets of vessels where gas exchange occurs. Blood then converges back into small veins called venules and eventually back into the major veins to be returned to the heart.
Descending Aorta Internal Jugular Vein Carotid Artery Femoral Vein Femeral Artery Arteries and Veins Activity 4.3.4: Cardiac Output
Your heart beats to send blood out through your vessels to your tissues. After each heartbeat, a pressure wave or pulse, passes along an artery as its walls bulge and then relax to withstand the surge of blood. By pressing on an artery, the number of pulses or heartbeats per minute can be counted
Pulses and Heart Rate
Carotid pulse: look for the carotid artery.
Locate this pulse using your index and middle
fingers on your neck. Slide your fingers
alongside your jaw bone and down into the d
epression on the side of your neck Radial pulse: Visualize the radial artery.
Locate the radial pulse at the wrist.
If you have trouble finding this pulse,
turn the wrist being measured palm up.
Wrap your other wrist (palm up also)
around it until your fingers fold over the
radial artery. Temporal pulse: Think about where you
built the temporalis muscle on your model.
Locate this pulse in front of the ear, up
slightly towards the eye. You may have felt
this pulse throbbing when you had a headache Heart rate can be used to calculate another indicator of heart health called cardiac output. Changes in cardiac output, the amount of blood that is pumped out by the ventricles per minute, often signal disease of the heart. The body’s pump may no longer be able to meet the demands of the rest of the body.
Cardiac output (ml/min) = stroke volume (ml/beat) x heart rate (beats/min)
How to Find Cardiac Ouput Project 4.4.1: The Body’s Response to Exercise Muscle cells contain a high energy molecule called creatine phosphate. The phosphate group on this molecule can be added to ADP to create a supply of ATP. However, creatine phosphate is in short supply. This system, the phosphagen system, will only supply energy to the muscle for another 8-10 seconds. Next, your body turns to glycogen, a polymer of glucose that is stored in the liver. Your cells can use a process called anaerobic respiration (the glycogen – lactic acid system) to make ATP and a byproduct called lactic acid from these glucose molecules When you exercise, your muscles act something like electric motors. Your muscles take in a source of energy and they use it to generate force. An electric motor uses electricity to supply its energy. Your muscles are biochemical motors, and they use a chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for their energy source. During the process of "burning" ATP, your muscles need three things:
•They need oxygen, because chemical reactions require ATP and oxygen is consumed to produce ATP.
•They need to eliminate metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, lactic acid) that the chemical reactions generate.
•They need to get rid of heat. Just like an electric motor, a working muscle generates heat that it needs to get rid of. Muscular System During Exercise Exercise requires the coordinated effort of many human body systems, including the nervous system, the muscular system, the skeletal system, the cardiovascular system, and the respiratory system.
Pivot joint Ball-and-Socket joint Saddle joint Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) joint Hinge joint Plane (Planar or Gliding) joint Chest Muscles ! Serratus Anterior
Pectoralis Major (three major pieces or “heads” of this muscle)
Vessel size varies dramatically along this path. The aorta, the largest artery in the body is almost the diameter of a garden hose. The capillaries, on the other hand, are so tiny that about ten of them would be as thick as one of the hairs on your head Conclusion - you should know: 1. The skeletal system works with the muscular system to move the human body.
2. A joint is the location at which two or more bones connect, allowing movement and providing support to the human skeleton.
3. Joints can be classified by either their structure or their function.
4. Synovial joints, freely moveable joints, allow both gross and precise movements of the appendicular skeleton.
5. Range of motion describes a joint’s possible movements as well as provides a measure of overall flexibility at a joint.
4.1 1. Through contraction and relaxation, the three different types of muscle tissue - skeletal, cardiac, and smooth - produce body movements, stabilize body position, move substances within the body and regulate heat.
2. The structure of the muscle and attachment of this muscle to bone directly relates to the function of each skeletal muscle.
3. Muscles are composed of units called sarcomeres, which contract and shorten when exposed to electrical stimuli.
4. Calcium ions and ATP play a role in the contraction of muscle fibers.
5. Neurons are packed together in wiring called nerves, and these nerves take electrical messages from the brain to muscle.
4.2 4.3 1. Cardiac and smooth muscle play a role in the movement of blood around the human body.
2. The heart pumps blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and to the body to deliver this oxygen.
3. The structure of arteries, veins, and capillaries relates directly to the function of each vessel and to the amount of pressure exerted on the vessel walls.
4. Veins contain valves that prevent the backflow of blood.
5. Changes in cardiac output, the amount of blood that is pumped out by the ventricles per minute, often signal diseases of the heart and these changes can impact the function of other body systems.
6. Increased blood pressure in vessels can indicate possible blockages and these blockages can interrupt blood flow to an organ or limb.
7. Lifestyle choices, such as poor diet and smoking, can lead to the development of blood flow disorders.
4.4 1. The body uses high energy molecules such as creatine phosphate, glycogen and glucose to supply ATP to working muscle.
2. Exercise requires the coordinated effort of many human body systems, including the nervous system, the muscular system, the skeletal system, the cardiovascular system, and the respiratory system.
3. Performance-enhancing drugs may initially produce noticeable changes in athletic performance, but come with serious health risks.
4. An athlete training for an intense physical event needs to consider diet, exercise, hydration, and injury prevention as well as track his or her progress and modify the plan to meet the demands of exercise.
We learned alot in Unit 4. We learned
through the dissection of a cow elbow to
show joints and movement. We learned
Nerves, Artery's, Veins through playing with the maniken. We learned movement and how body systems work together to move the body. In each activity we learned the specifics of how each body system works to move the body, even at the microscopic level! Overall Conclusion