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Properties of a well-written text

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angelo arcega

on 10 March 2016

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Transcript of Properties of a well-written text

Properties of a well-written text
Cohesion
PARAGRAPH
A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic.
PARAGRAPH ORGANIZATION
It refers to the way sentences are ordered and structured to create a unified and cohesive body of text.
Coherence
The first line of a paragraph is usually indented. This indentation of a paragraph indicates where the paragraph begins.
Remember that you must capitalize the first word in each sentence and end each sentence with a punctuation mark, most often a period (.).
Paragraph Part
Introduction
The first section of a paragraph; it should include the topic sentence and any other sentences at the beginning of the paragraph that give background information or provide a transition.

Body
Follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, or other information.

Conclusion
The final section; summarizes the connections between the information discussed in the body of the paragraphs and the paragraph's controlling idea.

Sentence Types
Topic Sentence
This states the main topic of the paragraph and the controlling idea

Supporting Details
These develop the topic sentence. Supporting details should be drawn from a variety of sources and based on research, experiences, etc. plus the writer's own analysis. Using a combination of different supports is the most common and effective way to strengthen the paragraph.

Concluding Sentence
This signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember, but is often unnecessary.


Writing the topic sentence

When writing the topic sentence, try to state the main point of the paragraph ad clearly and as accurately as possible. Do not make the topic sentence too general or too specific.

Too general

Studying overseas was deemed to be very difficult.

Too specific

Studying overseas was deemed to be very difficult for 63% of the people surveyed who cited a range of difficulties including homesickness, loneliness, difficulty making foreign friends, changes to diet, health problems, weight gain and difficulties with money and jobs.

 Studying overseas was deemed to be very difficult for 63% of the people surveyed due to the impacts of culture shock, financial concerns and health concerns.
Correct
Coherence refers to the overall sense of unity in a passage, including both the main point of sentences and the main point of each paragraph.
Techniques to improve paragraph coherence
Repetition
In sentence B (the second of any two sentences), repeat a word from sentence A.

Synonymy
If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat. This strategy is called 'elegant variation.'

Antonymy
Using the 'opposite' word, an antonym, can also create sentence cohesion, since in language antonyms actually share more elements of meaning than you might imagine.

Pro-forms
Use a pronoun, pro-verb, or another pro-form to make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier.

Collocation
Use a commonly paired or expected or highly probable word to connect one sentence to another.

Enumeration
Use overt markers of sequence to highlight the connection between ideas. This system has many advantages: (a) it can link ideas that are otherwise completely unconnected, (b) it looks formal and distinctive, and (c) it promotes a second method of sentence cohesion.

Parallelism
Repeat a sentence structure. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating cohesion.

Transitions
Use a conjunction or conjunctive adverb to link sentences with particular logical relationships.

To Specify Sequence
again, also, and, and then, besides, finally, first . . . second . . . third, furthermore, last, moreover, next, still, too

To Specify Time
after a few days, after a while, afterward, as long as, as soon as, at last, at that time, before, earlier, immediately, in the meantime, in the past, lately, later, meanwhile, now, presently, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, then, thereafter, until, when

To Specify Comparison
again, also, in the same way, likewise, once more, similarly

To Specify Contrast
although, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the one hand . . . on the other hand, regardless, still, though, yet

To Specify Examples
after all, for example, for instance, indeed, in fact, of course, specifically, such as, the following example, to illustrate

To Specify Cause and Effect
accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if . . . then, since, so, then, therefore, thereupon, thus, to this end

To Specify Place
above, adjacent to, below, beyond, closer to elsewhere, far, farther on, here, near, nearby, opposite to, there, to the left, to the right

To Specify Concession
although it is true that, granted that, I admit that, it may appear that, naturally, of course

To Specify Summary, Repetition, or Conclusion

as a result, as has been noted, as I have said, as mentioned earlier, as we have seen, in any event, in conclusion, in other words, in short, on the whole, therefore, to summarize

Cohesion is also a very important aspect of academic writing, because it immediately affects the tone of your writing. Cohesive writing does not mean just “grammatically correct” sentences; cohesive writing refers to the connection of your ideas both at the sentence level and at the paragraph level.



The hotel is famous. It is one of the most well-known hotels in the country. The latest international dancing competition was held at the hotel. The hotel spent a lot of money to advertise the event. Because the hotel wanted to gain international reputation. But not many people attended the event.

(The connection of ideas is not good.)



Example
The latest international dancing competition was held at the hotel, which is one of the most well-known hotels in this region. The hotel spent a lot of money on advertising the event since it wanted to enhance its international reputation; however, it failed to attract many people
.

(The connection of ideas is better than in the first example.)
Why Are Cohesion and Coherence Important?

Cohesion is important because it allows us to make multiple references to people, things, and events without reintroducing them at each turn. If we had to repeat these every time we wanted to refer to them, the text would be very tedious to read.
A coherent passage focuses the reader’s attention on the main ideas and the specific people, things, and events you are writing about.
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