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Ancient Greece

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by

Catherine Natale

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Greece

Minoans & Mycenaean:
Minoans:
Named after Minos, King of Crete
Established during Bronze Age
Knossos = central city in civilization
Destroyed by either natural disaster or invasion


Mycenaean:
Ruled by powerful monarchies
Lived in fortified palace center
Led by warrior kings
Prided themselves on heroic deeds in battle
Weakened by earthquakes and internal struggles/fighting
Thrown into 400 year Dark Age
Greek City-States:
Polis
By 750 BCE: Polis becomes center of Greek life
People met for political, social, & religious reasons
Location & Geography:
About the size of Louisiana
1,400+ islands
Mountainous region: difficult to farm, relied on sea trade
Independent, sea-faring people
Types of Greek Government:
Monarchy
Ruled by a single king
Rule is hereditary
Some rulers claim divine right
Practiced in Mycenae
Oligarchy
Ruled by a few group of citizens
Rule is based on wealth
Practiced in Sparta
The Great Peloponnesian War:
431 – 405 B.C.
Greek world divided: Athens vs. Sparta
During 2nd year of the war – plague breaks out in overcrowded Athens, killing 1/3 of the people
Fought for 25 more years until the Athenian fleet was destroyed at Aegospotami
Athens loses 27,000 men and fleet

Sparta wins!
404 BC--Athens surrenders
Athens stripped of walls, fleet, colonies and confidence
Both sides exhausted, Sparta also declined
Petty internal wars over next 66 years
This would lead to Greece’s demise as an independent nation
Greek Culture:
Greek Religion
Mt. Olympus- Home of the Greek gods
Polytheistic
Festivals / rituals- were used to encourage the gods to be generous

The Olympics – 776 BC

Architecture
search for perfect forms
Based on ideals of reason, moderation, balance, and harmony in all things
Most important form was the temples dedicated to gods or goddesses
Parthenon

Greek Sculpture
Lifelike nude statues showed ideal form of beauty

Philosophy
An organized system of thought
“love of wisdom”
Basic assumption:
universe is orderly and subject to unchanging laws
people understand those laws through logic and reasoning

The Great Greek Debate:
You are going to be split into the 2 major Greek city-states, Athens & Sparta

Your job is to formulate arguments to convince a foreign territory to join your polis

Directions to follow!
Ancient Greece
Athens:
Daily Life in Classical Athens
Boys were taught reading, writing, math, music, and physical education
Education ended at age 18 when officially became a citizen

Athenian Women - Role of Women
Strictly controlled -confined to the house
Always had a male guardian
Could not own property
Learned to read & play instruments, but not given a formal education

Government
Ruled by Aristocrats
Economic problems = political turmoil
Farmers sold into slavery
Athens verged on Civil War

Cleisthenes’s Reforms
Gained power in 508 BC
Created a council of 500 – Citizen’s Assembly
Basis of Athenian democracy
Laid the foundation of democracy we know today
Sparta:
Conquered their neighbors, the Laconians & the Messenians
These people became known as helots - servants/slaves
Became a military state to ensure control over the helots
From childhood boys are trained to be soldiers

Spartan = “highly self-disciplined”
men served a lifetime in the military (age 20-60)
lives were rigidly organized & tightly controlled

Spartan Woman
power over the household
they enjoyed more rights and freedoms than Athenian women
expected to exercise & remain fit to bear children
expected husbands & sons to be brave

Spartan Values
duty, strength and discipline over all
discouraged from studying philosophy, literature & arts – might lead to new thoughts

Spartan Government
Oligarchy – 2 Kings
Ephors – 5 elected men
Council of Elders
Aristocracy
Ruled by nobility
Rule is hereditary & based on land ownership
Social status & wealth supports authority
Practiced in Athens
Democracy***
Ruled by citizens
Rule is based on citizenship
Majority rule decides the vote
Practiced in Athens
Socrates:
Socrates – “The unexamined life is not worth living”
Socratic Method
Question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason
Questioning authority = trouble
399 BC tried for corrupting the youth of Athens
Sentenced to die by drinking hemlock

Plato:
Plato – “How do we know what is real?”
Student of Socrates
Believed individuals could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational state
Ideal forms make up reality
Expressed his ideas in a book titled The Republic
Established a school called the Academy

Aristotle:
Student at the Academy for 20 years
Did not accept Plato’s theory of ideal forms
Believed in analyzing through observation and investigation (scientific method)
Favored constitutional government

"Commander Lear"
What are some postive characteristics of Commander Lear?
What are some negative characteristics of Commander Lear?
From the story, can you infer any information about the land in which Commander Lear lives?
What is your overall impression or feeling about the land in which he lives? Could such a place really exist? Why/why not?
Full transcript