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The Renaissance and Reformation
Transcript of The Renaissance and Reformation
- After the disorder and disunity of the Medieval World, there was a need for rebirth.
- Renaissance thinkers explored the richness and variety of human experience in the here and now. They also placed a new emphasis on individual achievement.
- Navigators sailed oceans, scientists looked at the universe in new ways, and writers and artists experimented with new forms and techniques
- At the heart of the Renaissance was Humanism
- Humanists believed that education should stimulate the individual's creative powers
- They emphasized the humanities - subjects such as grammar, rhetoric (using langauge effectively), poetry, and history.
The Renaissance in Italy
The Renaissance and Reformation
- A new age had dawned in Western Europe. Europeans called this age the Renaissance (meaning "rebirth").
- It marked the transition from medieval times to the early modern world
- The Renaissance was a time of creativity and great change in many areas - political, social, economic, and cultural.
Renaissance Art Flowers
- Renaissance gained most of its glorious express in its paintings, sculptures, and architecture
- It reflected the ideas of humanism. However, they often set religious figures such as Jesus and Mary against classical Greek or Roman backgrounds.
- Renaissance painters returned to the realism of classical times by developing new techniques for representing both humans and landscapes.
- In particular, the rules of perspective allowed Renaissance artists to create realistic art.
Leonardo Da Vinci
- Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet
- "Melancholy Genius"
- Has many famous masterpieces such as David, The Pieta, and the Sistine Chapel.
Italy: Cradle of Renaissance
- Italy was the place where the Renaissance emerged for several reasons:
1. Renaissance thinkers had a new interest in ancient Rome
2. Italy's location on the Mediterranean
3. Trade routes carried new ideas that were important in shaping the Renaissance.
Italy's Vibrant City-States
- Italy was divided into many small city-states. Each city-state was controlled by a powerful family.
- The Medici family of Florence, for example, ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe.
- The Medici's great wealth and influence transformed Florence. It came to symbolize the energy and brilliance of the Italian Renaissance.
An intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
In 1498, there was an assassination attempt on the Medici's..........
- Wrote The Prince, which stressed that "The end justifies the means"
- He urged rulers to use whatever methods necessary to achieve their goals
- Machiavelli saw himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption, but critics attacked his cynical advice. ("Machiavellian" has came to refer to the use of deceit in politics)
- Students of government have argued that Machiavelli provided a realistic look at politics
- His work continues to spark debate because it raises important ethical questions about the use of power
The Renaissance in the North
- In 1455, Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press (this aided in the spread of the Renaissance)
- Before the printing press, only a thousand books were in all of Europe. By 1500, there were 15 to 20 million that had been produced by the printing press
Impacts of printing press:
- Cheaper and easier to produce
- More people learned to read
- Broader range of knowledge (new ideas & new places)
The Protestant Reformation
- Represents the biblical hero David (David v. Goliath)
- Height: 17 feet
- Weight: 12,478 lbs. (About 4 cars)
- Took Michelangelo 3 years to finish (26 years old)
- The Pietà captures the sorrow of the Biblical Mary as she cradles her dead son Jesus on her knees
- Housed in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City
- It is the only piece that Michelangelo ever signed.
The Sistine Chapel
- The Sistine Chapel depicts biblical history of the world from the Creation to the Flood
- The painting took four years
- One of the most important paintings that has ever been done
Did Michelangelo paint a brain on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel?
Michelangelo's Works of Art
- One of the most famous artists of the Renaissance
- Leonardo's paintings grip people with their realism
- He made sketches of nature, dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles worked
- Furthermore, he made sketches of an underwater boat and a "flying machine".
- Some his most famous works are The Last Supper, Vitruvian Man, and The Mona Lisa
Leonardo Da Vinci's Works
The Vitruvian Man
- One of the most iconic drawings from Da Vinci
- The purpose of the illustration is to bring together ideas about art, architecture, human anatomy and symmetry in one distinct and commanding image.
The Last Supper
The Last Supper
- The Last Supper is both a moving religious painting and a masterpiece of perspective
- Depicts Jesus and his apostles on the night before the crucifixion
The Mona Lisa
The Mona Lisa is a portrait of a woman whose mysterious smile has baffled viewers for centuries
1. Why was the invention of perspective necessary for artists to achieve realism in painting?
2. What other techniques bring the eye to the central figure of Jesus?
- In 1517, protests against Church abuses erupted into a full-scale revolt.
- Martin Luther had grown tired of what he saw as corruption
- A priest had set up a pulpit in Wittenburg, Germany. He offered indulgences to any Christian who contributed money for the rebuilding of the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome.
- This was the final outrage for Martin Luther. This meant that the poor peasants could not get into heaven.
- He drew up 95 theses, or arguments, against indulgences.
- He also argued that indulgences had no basis in the bible, that the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved only through faith.
- With the new innovations, many people looked for ways to shape a society that made more sense to them. Increasingly, they used humanist ideas to question a central force in their lives - the Church
- The Church had been accused of many abuses
- The Popes had competed with Italian princes for political power
- Church had increased fees for marriages and baptisms (The Pope lived a lavish lifestyle)
- They sold indulgences
a lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory
Martin Luther - Continued
- Almost overnight, Luther had ignited a firestorm. His 95 theses were printed and distributed across Europe.
- Luther was urging Christians to reject the authority of Rome.
- In 1521, Pope Leo excommunicated Luther.
- Luther was summoned to the diet at the city of Worms.
- The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, asked Luther to give up his writings and recant ideas. Luther refused to.
- Charles declared Luther an outlaw (making it a crime for anyone in the empire to give him food or shelter).
- Still, Luther had many powerful supporters and thousands hailed him as a hero. They accepted his teachings and renounced the pope.
assembly of German Princes
- All Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible.
- Luther wanted everyone to be able to read and study the Bible, so he translated parts into German.
- He wanted every town to have a school so that all children could learn to read the Bible.
- He banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints.
- Emphasized the sermon.
Ideas Spread, Revolt, Augsburg
- Many people saw Luther's reforms as the answer to Church corruption.
- Peasants revolt taking up Luther's banner calling for an end to serfdom and changes to their harsh lives.
Finally, Charles V signed the Peace of Augsburg. This allowed each prince to decide which religion (Catholic or Lutheran) would be followed in his lands.
- Open book to 427 and read about Calvinism.
The Scientific Revolution
- In 1543, Copernicus proposed a heliocentric model of the universe
- Many people rejected Copernicus' ideas
- Galileo discovered that Jupiter had four moons.
- This caused an uproar. Other scholars attacked him because his observations contradicted ancient views about the world.
- Tried in court, and agreed to state publicly in court that Earth stands motionless at the center of the universe.
- Using your Chromebooks, look up Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, Issac Newton, and the scientific method. Answer the questions projected up front.
The Scientific Revolution changes the way we think about everything!
Here's what we used to think. How selfish!
sun sits at the center of the universe