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Literature Review

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Bethany Calman

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Literature Review

According to the World Health Organization, one of the primary causes of death around the world is alcohol consumption (de Haan et al., 2012). Alcoholic beverages are depressant drugs that contain ethanol, and result in the decrease of activity in the central nervous system (Drug Info, 2013).
Due to their popularity the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drinks (AmED) is a common act among university students (Brache & Stockwell, 2011). The combination of energy drinks and alcohol allows students to simultaneously experience the effects of alcohol over an extended period of time (Brache & Stockwell, 2011) and control their experienced euphoria (Jones et al., 2012). The depressant effects of alcohol cause the individual to feel drowsy; a feeling that is then counteracted by the stimulant effects of energy drinks, resulting in alertness and more energy (Peacock, Bruno, & Martin, 2012).

Sample of convenience consisting of 851 undergraduate Psychology students from Macquarie University
237 - 27.8%
614 - 72.2%
Age: M=20.4935 (5.56126)
Range of 17 - 75
Energy drinks are popular beverages among young consumers because they claim to offer increased alertness, attention and strength (Reissig, Strain, & Griffiths, 2009). They are often advertised through the use of “taboo” names (for example, “Cocaine”, “Rockstar”, “Bawls”) and slogans that emphasize the strength an individual obtains after consuming the drink (O’Brien et al., 2008) (for example, “Bring out the Beast”, “Party Like a Rockstar”).
One important factor of risk assessment may be the ability of individuals to assess their own intoxication level (O’Brien et al., 2008). Many studies have found students who consumed AmED had a greater risk of negative consequences compared to students who consumed alcohol only (O’Brien et al., 2008; Brache & Stockwell, 2011; Marczinski et al., 2013). However a study by de Haan et al. (2012) concluded that when students consumed AmED, the probability of negative consequences occurring was not increased.
Computers in the tutorial labs were used to connect online to complete the online survey.

After the consent of students, they were asked to proceed to online questionnaire during the tutorial times that was allocated to them. The questions were asking students about their drinking habits and the consequences they have faced due to drinking alcohol and energy drinks during the time period of two weeks prior to the day survey was conducted.

t(107.44)=3.16, p=.002
t(111.79)=4.84, p= .001
t(129.65)=7.37, p= .001
Number of T-Tests were conducted in order to analyze the differences between AmED users and alcohol only users on the basis of social and physical consequences as well as the levels of intoxication.
Inform the university community and students of the possible dangers of AmED use and its negative consequences on the individual.
Communities should be made aware of the increased probability of suffering from negative consequences so individuals can make informed decisions regarding AmED use.
Further studies of a broader range of university students and negative consequences as a result of AmED should be conducted to confirm the results of this study.
Further studies of how alcohol mixed with energy drinks and alcohol alone have an effect upon an individual's perceived intoxication and BAC levels should be conducted to distinguish the possible harm of negative consequences as a result of intoxication.
This study revealed that university students who consume AmED experience higher average negative social and physical consequences compared to students who are non-AmED drinkers
This study has also revealed that students who consumed AmED self-reported higher average intoxication levels compared to non- AmED users.
Has demonstrated that an individual's intoxication level and probability of suffering from negative social and physical consequences is increased when mixing alcohol with energy drinks compared to drinking alcohol alone.
This study's two hypothesis were based upon university students and their use of AmED or alcohol only. Students that participated in this study were only from the university of Macquarie and consisted of first year psychology students which may have had an impact upon the data as their was a restricted sample however no obvious systematic effects on these results have been observed.

Brache, K., & Stockwell, T. (2011). Drinking patterns and risk behaviors associated with combined alcohol and energy drink consumption in college drinkers. Addictive behaviors, 36(12), 1133-1140. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.07.003

de Haan, L., de Haan, H. A., van der Palen, J., Olivier, B., & Verster, J. C. (2012). Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. International journal of general medicine, 5, 953. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S38020

Drug Info. (2013). Alcohol facts. Retrieved from http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/alcohol
Heckman, M. A., Sherry, K., Mejia, D., & Gonzalez, E. (2010). Energy drinks: An assessment of their market size, consumer demographics, ingredient profile, functionality, and regulations in the United States. Comprehensive Reviews in food science and food safety, 9(3), 303-317. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00111.x

Jones, S. C., Barrie, L., & Berry, N. (2012). Why (not) alcohol energy drinks? A qualitative study with Australian university students. Drug and Alcohol Review,31(3), 281-287. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2011.00319.x

Marczinski, C. A., Fillmore, M. T., Henges, A. L., Ramsey, M. A., & Young, C. R. (2012). Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01868.x

O’Brien, M. C., McCoy, T. P., Rhodes, S. D., Wagoner, A., & Wolfson, M. (2008). Caffeinated Cocktails: Energy Drink Consumption, High‐risk Drinking, and Alcohol‐related Consequences among College Students. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(5), 453-460. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00085.x

Oteri, A., Salvo, F., Caputi, A. P., & Calapai, G. (2007). Intake of energy drinks in association with alcoholic beverages in a cohort of students of the School of Medicine of the University of Messina. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(10), 1677-1680.doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00464.x
Peacock, A., Bruno, R., & Martin, F. H. (2012). The Subjective Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Risk‐Taking Consequences of Alcohol and Energy Drink Co‐Ingestion. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research,36(11), 2008-2015. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01820.x
Reissig, C. J., Strain, E. C., & Griffiths, R. R. (2009). Caffeinated energy drinks—a growing problem. Drug and alcohol dependence, 99(1), 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.08.001

Energy Drinks?
An energy drink is a caffeinated beverage that is designed to provide a burst of energy and enhanced alertness (Marczinski et al., 2013) through the use of a mixture of stimulants, high quantities of sugar or sugar substitutes, amino acids and herbal extracts (Heckman, Sherry, Mejia, & Gonzalez, 2010; Oteri, Salvo, Caputi, & Calapai, 2007).
What's the big deal?
Individuals who consume AmED report a lesser amount of intoxication compared to those individuals who consume alcohol alone (Brache & Stockwell, 2011), which, combined with the increased energy, often leads to the consumption of more alcohol (Brache & Stockwell, 2011). Although the individual may report feeling less drunk, their intoxication levels are unaffected by the consumption of energy drinks (O’Brien et al., 2008).
Alcohol + Energy Drinks = ?
In this study, we hypothesized that university students who consumed AmED would self-report a higher prevalence of physical and social negative consequences compared to those students who consumed alcohol alone. We also hypothesized that those students who consumed AmED would self-report a lower average intoxication level compared to students who consumed alcohol alone.

First Hypothesis:
university student who consumed AmED would self-report a higher prevalence of physical and social negative consequences compared to those students who consumed alcohol alone
Results of Study:
social and physical negative consequences were considerably higher within the AmED group
consistent with previous research to that of O’Brien et al. (2008)
contradict previous findings with the study conducted by Haan et al. (2008) who concluded that the probability of negative consequences was not increased

Second Hypothesis:
students would self report lower average intoxication levels for AmED drinkers compared to students who were non-AmED drinkers
Results of Study:
AmED drinkers reported a higher level of intoxication compared to alcohol only
results are inconsistent with previous research conducted by Brache & Stockwell (2011 and Brian et al. (2008) who concluded that individuals would report feeling less drunk regardless of their intoxication levels
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