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Copy of Diseases of the 21st century

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on 22 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Diseases of the 21st century

Diseases of the 21st century
by the final group of BMLS-2A
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Between November 2002 and July 2003, an outbreak of SARS in Southern China caused an eventual 8,273 cases and 775 deaths reported in multiple countries with the majority of cases in Hong Kong.
SARS coronavirus,
sometimes shortened to SARS-CoV, is the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Initial symptoms are flu-like
and may include fever, cough, sore throat, and other nonspecific symptoms. The only symptom common to all patients appears to be a fever above 38 °C (100 °F). Shortness of breath may occur later. The patient has symptoms as with a cold in the first stage, but later on they resemble influenza.

As of 2013, there is no cure or protective vaccine for SARS that is safe for use in humans.
There is no vaccine to date. Isolation and quarantine remain the most effective means to prevent the spread of SARS. In addition, hand washing, use of universal precautions, disinfection of surfaces for fomites, and use of a surgical mask are recommended.

The epidemic of SARS appears to have started in Guangdong Province, China in November 2002. The first case of SARS was reportedly originated in Shunde, Foshan, Guangdong in November 2002, and the patient, a farmer, was treated in the First People's Hospital of Foshan. The patient died soon after, and no definite diagnosis was made on his cause of death.

In Hong Kong, the first cohort of affected people was discharged from the hospital on 29 March 2003. The disease spread in Hong Kong from a mainland doctor who arrived in February and stayed at the ninth floor of the Metropole Hotel in Kowloon, infecting 16 of the hotel visitors. Those visitors traveled to Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam, spreading SARS to those locations.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus that causes AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The natural history of AIDS infection begins with infection by the HIV retrovirus, detectable only by laboratory tests, and ends with the severly immunocompromised, terminal stage of this disease varies gently in individuals but always progresses from acute HIV infection to the appearance of symptoms (mild to severe) to diagnosis of AIDS and eventually to death.
The origins of HIV can be dated back to the late 19th century or early 20th century in west-central Africa. HIV/AIDS was first identified and recognized in the early 1980's
Symptoms include persistent generalized adenophathy, nonspecific symptoms (weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, fevers), neurologic symptoms resulting from HIV encephalopathy, and opportunistic infection or cancer. But the only way to be sure is through various blood tests.

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS. Treatments may only prolong the death.
HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person, namely semen and vaginal fluids, blood, and breast milk. You can pass the virus through blood-to-blood contact (such as blood transfusion), contaminated needles, and sexual contact. Infected women can also pass the virus to their babies during pregnancy, labor and childbirth. Safe sex, clean needles, and frequent testing are the only ways to prevent the spread of the virus.

— ELISA, which stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is used to detect HIV infection. If an ELISA test is positive, the Western blot test is usually administered to confirm the diagnosis. If an ELISA test is negative, but you think you may have HIV, you should be tested again in one to three months.
Western Blot
— This is a very sensitive blood test used to confirm a positive ELISA test result.
Saliva Tests
— A cotton pad is used to obtain saliva from the inside of your cheek. The pad is placed in a vial and submitted to a laboratory for testing. Results are available in three days. Positive results should be confirmed with a blood test.
Viral Load Test
— This test measures the amount of HIV in your blood. Generally, it's used to monitor treatment progress or detect early HIV infection. HIV is detected using DNA sequences that bind specifically to those in the virus. It is important to note that results may vary between tests.

EVD is caused by four of five viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales: Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). The fifth virus, Reston virus (RESTV), is thought to be apathogenic for humans and therefore not discussed here.
The disease begins with a sudden onset of an influenza-like stage characterized by general malaise, fever with chills, arthralgia, myalgia, and chest pain. Nausea is accompanied by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Respiratory tract involvement
is characterized by pharyngitis with sore throat, cough, dyspnea, and hiccups.
The central nervous system is affected as judged by the development of severe headaches, agitation, confusion, fatigue, depression, seizures, and sometimes coma
There is currently no FDA-approved ebolavirus-specific therapy for EVD.
Ebola viruses are highly infectious as well as contagious. As an outbreak of ebola progresses, bodily fluids from diarrhea, vomiting, and bleeding represent a hazard. Due to lack of proper equipment and hygienic practices, large-scale epidemics occur mostly in poor, isolated areas without modern hospitals or well-educated medical staff. Many areas where the infectious reservoir exists have just these characteristics. In such environments, all that can be done is to immediately cease all needle-sharing or use without adequate sterilization procedures, isolate patients, and observe strict barrier nursing procedures with the use of a medical-rated disposable face mask, gloves, goggles, and a gown at all times, strictly enforced for all medical personnel and visitors. The aim of all of these techniques is to avoid any person’s contact with the blood or secretions of any patient, including those who are deceased.

This also known as "bird flu", A(H5N1) or
simply H5N1, is a subtype of the
influenza A virus which can cause illness
in humans and many other animal species.
A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called
HPAI A(H5N1) for "highly pathogenic avian
influenza virus of type A of subtype
H5N1", is the causative agent of H5N1
flu, commonly known as
"avian influenza" or "bird flu".
According to the FAO Avian Influenza Disease Emergency Situation Update, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination. Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries (China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam) compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006 and 55 in June 2007. The "global HPAI situation can be said to have improved markedly in the first half of 2008 [but] cases of HPAI are still underestimated and underreported in many countries because of limitations in country disease surveillance systems". In July 2013 the WHO announced a total of 630 confirmed human cases which resulted in the deaths of 375 people since 2003.
Symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitis, and, in severe cases, breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal.

There is no highly effective treatment for H5N1 flu, but oseltamivir (commercially marketed by Roche as Tamiflu), can sometimes inhibit the influenza virus from spreading inside the user's body. This drug has become a focus for some governments and organizations trying to prepare for a possible H5N1 pandemic.
A different strain of swine flu.
nobody likes this
Symptoms include fever, chills, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, and lack of appetite.
There are no vaccines ready to protect against the pandemic flu.
You can pass this virus through coughing, sneezing, and touching something with live flu viruses on it and then touching your mouth or nose. To prevent this, you must always avoid touching these fluids of infected ones and observe proper hygiene.

Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza
virus that rarely infects humans. But when bird flu does strike humans, it's often deadly. More than half the people who become infected with bird flu die of the disease. In recent years, outbreaks of bird flu have occurred in Asia, Africa and parts of Europe. Most people who have developed symptoms of bird flu have had close contact with sick birds. In a few cases, bird flu has passed from one person to another. Health officials worry that a global outbreak could occur if a bird flu virus mutates into a form that transmits more easily from person to person. Researchers are working on vaccines to help protect people from bird flu.

Signs and symptoms of bird flu typically begin within two to five days of infection. In most cases, they resemble those of conventional influenza, including, cough ,fever, sore throat, muscle aches

Some people also experience nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. And in a few cases, a mild eye infection (conjunctivitis) is the only indication of the disease.

Many influenza viruses have become resistant to the effects of a category of antiviral drugs that includes amantadine and rimantadine. Health officials recommend the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and possibly zanamivir (Relenza) instead.

These drugs must be taken within two days after the appearance of symptoms, something that may prove logistically difficult on a worldwide scale, even if there were enough to go around. Because they're in short supply, it's not entirely clear how flu drugs would be allocated if there were a widespread epidemic.

Avoid domesticated birds.
If possible, avoid rural areas, small farms and open-air markets.
Wash your hands.
This is one of the simplest and best ways to prevent infections of all kinds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol when you travel.
Ask about a flu shot
. Before traveling, ask your doctor about a flu shot. It won't protect you specifically from bird flu, but it may help reduce the risk of simultaneous infection with bird and human flu viruses.

Because heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. Even so, it's best to take precautions when handling and preparing poultry,
Avoid cross-contamination.
Use hot, soapy water to wash cutting boards, utensils and all surfaces that have come into contact with raw poultry.
Cook thoroughly.
Cook chicken until the juices run clear, and it reaches a minimum internal temperature of 165 F (74 C).
Steer clear of raw eggs.
Because eggshells are often contaminated with bird droppings, avoid foods containing raw or undercooked eggs

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