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About Our Research

Political Settlements Research Programme Themes
by

Astrid Jamar

on 30 September 2016

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Transcript of About Our Research

Political
Settlements
Research

Theme 6: Measuring Political Settlements
This theme attempts to understand and develop a conceptual framework and methodology for
defining and understanding transformation
. It includes
exploratory and experimental
attempts to measure ‘success and failure’ or ‘transformation’ of political settlements.

Overview Questions
How do different
actors and ‘measurers’
implicitly
define

success
ful ‘transformation’?
What do these outcomes tell us about the
‘variable geometry’ of how governance, conflict, political bargaining
, and
development goals
interact with each other?
In what ways do forms of external measurement themselves
trigger elite strategic instrumental engagement
, so affecting the political bargaining process?

Theme 5: Strategies for Transformation
This theme examines
strategies for influencing
political settlements by internal and external actors. On the basis of
specific country examples,
we aim to identify what types of strategies proved
effective in opening up
the political settlement to a range of actors, and whether these efforts have
stabilised or de-stabilised
political settlements.

Overview questions
:
What strategies for change are employed by internal and external actors seeking to transform political settlements?
How are donors to employ political settlement analysis to make better decisions?
Theme 4: Political Settlements and Gender

While other themes integrates gender analysis, this theme focuses specifically on the inclusion of women. We examine:
the
strategies used by women
locally and transnationally to
intervene and influence
political settlements
how
international law
is used by women internally to achieve change
the ways in which
gender violence
is part of a political settlements
the difficulties of
gender and institutional transformation

Overview Questions:
How does the conceptual definition of ‘political settlement’ function to include or exclude women?
Given the feminist energy invested in pushing for progressive international norm development (eg UNSCR 1325), to what extent do these standards give leverage to women in the continuous bargaining processes of domestic political settlements?

Theme 2:
Political Settlements and Armed Conflict
This theme examines
the relationship of
armed actors to the bargaining processes
of political settlements
how violence can be a
tool for political bargaining

Overview Questions:
How do armed groups function, maintain loyalties, and use violence as a tool of political bargaining?
What do we understand the political bargaining functions of violence against women to be?
Theme 3:
Peace Processes
Theme 1: Conceptualising
Political Settlements
This theme addresses:
How we
understand
political settlement
The role of
internal elites, other internal actors or external actors

How they relate to t
ransformation
striving for inclusive, democratic and just settlements
About Our Research

Our Programme addresses how political settlements can be more stable and more inclusive. We ask whether there is a trade-off between:
inclusion of elites and wider inclusion of those affected by these settlements
stability and inclusion
peacebuilding and justice

Specifically addressed through ...
Projects:

Conceptualisation project
Practice lab ‘testing’ of Political Settlements
Transforming Political Settlements

See more about this theme: http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/how/themes/concepts/
Read Prof Christine Bell's Paper: http://www.politicalsettlements.org/research/publications/working-papers/wp2/





Projects:
Armed actors and power
Armed actors and public authority

See more about this theme
:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/how/themes/conflict/
See Publications on Armed Actors and Public Authority:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/portfolio/armed-actors-authority/

3 Research Questions
1. How do
different types
of political settlement emerge, and what are the
actors, institutions, resources, and practices
that shape them?

2. How can political settlements be
improved by internally-driven initiatives
, including the impact of
gender-inclusive
processes and
rule of law institutions
?

3. How, and with what interventions, can
external actors
change political settlements?
6 Research Themes
1. Conceptualising Political Settlements
2. Political Settlements and Conflict
3. Political Settlements and Peace Processes
4. Political Settlements and Gender
5. Strategies for Transformation
6. Defining and Measuring Transformation
This theme uses
qualitative and quantitative research
methods to deal with questions relating to the connection between peace processes and political settlement.

Understanding peace agreements as
Road maps
that aim to transmute the
violent conflict
into a complex
set of new political and legal institutions

through which fundamental
disagreement
over the political settlement can
continue to be negotiated

we examine how these agreements simultaneously
address elite bargaining, good governance, participation, conflict resolution, and development
.
Overview Questions
:
What
new forms of inclusion
do peace processes attempt to establish?
What are the trade-offs that occur in peace processes, above and below the table, among those involved in the negotiation, drafting and implementing peace agreements?

Projects:
Negotiating peace
Amnesties and Political Settlements
Lawyers and Political Settlements

See more about this theme:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/how/themes/peace-processes/
Have a virtual tour of our Women and Peace Agreements (PA-X Women) Database:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/research/pax-women/
PA-X
‘Peace Agreement Access’ Tool
PA-X is a new database with new extended categories, capturing and presenting actual text

How?
Code and map
all peace agreements since 1990
(around 1500 documents in 100 countries/jurisdictions)
Provide a
large-N statistical picture
of how peace agreements globally deal with issues of inclusion, poverty, development, and conflict resolution
Set of correlations
explored quantitatively and qualitatively

Why?
To
enable research
on peace agreement provisions
To support peace processes facilitators and participants to
access

comparative information
on how peace agreements deal with core issues
such as inclusion, human rights, and development, power-sharing

Coding methodology:
Determination the
conflict stage,
parties and third parties, categorisation of agreement
provisions into coding categories

Coders and the Project Director addressing and resolving coding dilemmas
as a team
Compilation of coding decisions in a
coding handbook
Online Q&A system
To have
fully replicable coding decisions

See for example coding definitions for PA-X Women:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/files/2015/11/20151125-Women-and-Peace-Agreements-PA-X-Women-Database-Definitions.pdf

Peace Agreements Collection
:
Over 25 year period
From research of peace agreement databases, contact with governments and armed actors involved in peace agreements, other web searches, and contact with mediators in particular processes

Methodology

Christine Bell, Peace Agreements and Human Rights (OUP, 2000)
Christine Bell, On the Law of Peace: Peace Agreements and the New Lex Pacificatoria (OUP, 2008)

Christine Bell, Text and Context: Evaluating Peace Agreements for their ‘Gender Perspective’, 11 October 2015
Christine Bell, Unsettling Bargains? Power-sharing and the Inclusion of Women in Peace Negotiations, 8 October 2015
Bell, Christine, Text and Context: Evaluating Peace Agreements for their ‘Gender Perspective’ (2015).
Bell, Christine, and Farahnoosh, Helen, Briefing Paper 3/2015: Philippines/NDF Chronology.
Bell, Christine, and Utley, Vanessa, Briefing Paper 2/2015: Philippines/Mindanao Chronology.
Bell, Christine, O’Rourke, Catherine, and Matzner, Sissela, Briefing Paper 1/2015: Colombia Chronology.

See here: http://www.politicalsettlements.org/research/publications/reports/


See also: Louise Mallinder and Catherine O'Rourke, Databases of Transitional Justice Mechanisms and Contexts: Comparing Research Purposes and Design, International Journal of Transitional Justice, August 2016.


Background Research
and Output
Overview Questions:
How is the gap between the statebuilding and the political bargaining processes addressed in existing scholarship?
How do people within conflict zones experience and understand the political settlement that live under?
Our Working Definitions
Peace Process:
An attempt to bring political and/or military elites involved in conflict to some sort of mutual agreement as to how to end the conflict
Conflict:

Politically-related violence causing more than 25 battle-related deaths in at least one calendar year.
Peace Agreement:

Documents produced after discussion with some or all of the conflict’s protagonists that address conflict with a view to ending it.
Projects:
Conceptualising Gender and Political Settlements
Engendering Institutions
Gender and Norms
Women’s Activism
Women’s Success
Gender and Violence

See more about this theme
: http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/how/themes/gender/
See our page on UNSCR 1325
: http://www.politicalsettlements.org/resources/unscr-1325/
See our publications related to this theme
:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/research/publications/articles-essays/
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/research/publications/working-papers/wp5
http://www.globaljusticeacademy.ed.ac.uk/documents/SSRN_FOAN_Feminist_Peacebuilding.pdf
Our Publication and Research Output
Our Consortium Members
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/who/consortium/
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/who/people/
Projects:
Nepal
Afghanistan
Ethiopia-Ogaden
Northern Ireland
Borderlands and Political Settlements
Somalia, Stabilisation and Political Settlements

See more about this theme
: http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/how/themes/transformation/
Listen to Tobias Hagmaan's Podcast on Somolia
at http://www.politicalsettlements.org/resources/podcasts/

Projects
:
Conceptualising Transformation
Measuring Success and Failure

See more on this theme:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/about/how/themes/measurement/
Read our background research paper:
http://www.politicalsettlements.org/research/publications/working-papers/wp1/
Full transcript