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RECYCLING

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Amira Ali

on 17 May 2014

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Transcript of RECYCLING

RECYCLING
HISTORY
Although recycling may seem like a modern concept introduced with the environmental movement of 1970’s, it is actually been around thousands of years. Prior to the industrial age, one could not make goods quickly and cheaply, so virtually everyone practiced recycling in some form.
Recycling has been a common practice for most of human history, with recorded advocates as far back as Plato in 400 BC. During periods when resources were scarce, archaeological studies of ancient waste dumps show less household waste (such as ash, broken tools and pottery)—implying more waste was being recycled in the absence of new material.[3]
Beverage bottles were recycled with a refundable deposit at some drink manufacturers in Great Britain and Ireland around 1800, notably Schweppes.[6] An official recycling system with refundable deposits was established in Sweden for bottles in 1884 and aluminum beverage cans in 1982, by law, leading to a recycling rate for beverage containers of 84–99 percent depending on type, and average use of a glass bottle is over 20 refills.
In 1930’s and 40’s goods such as nylon and rubber and many metals were rationed and recycled to help support war. It was not until the environmental movement of the 1960’s and 70’s heralded by the first earth day that recycling ones again became a mainstream idea.

DEFINATIONS
RECYCLING:
it is a process to change (waste) materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy, and reduce air pollution and water pollution.
THE 3 R’S: this stands for Reduce, Reuse and Recycle the 3R's are at the heart of the ‘Go Green’ global movement.
LANDFILLS: A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment
RECYCLABLE WASTE: wastes that can b recycled into new products.
NON RECYCLABLE WASTE: waste that cannot be recycled into new products and end up in landfills.
COMPOSTING: is the product resulting from the controlled biological decomposition of organic material?
BIO WASTE: Biodegradable waste is a type of waste which can be broken down, in a reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things, regardless of what those compounds may be
E- WASTE: E-waste is a term used to cover almost all types of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that has or could enter the waste stream
GOING GREEN: Going green is a popular term used to describe the process of changing one's lifestyle for the safety and benefit of the environment.
GREY WATER RECYCLING: Greywater can be defined as any domestic wastewater produced, excluding sewage. Treated greywater can be used to irrigate both food and non food producing plants and many other uses.


What is recycling??
Recycling is the process of making or manufacturing new products from a product that has originally served its purpose. If these used products are disposed of in an appropriate, environmentally friendly way, the process of recycling has been set in motion
Benefit of recycling:
-recycling save energy
- recycling save energy
-Recycling can save money
-recycling conserves our valuable natural source

INTRODUCTION

Over the past decade, concerns about the environment has bought with it a massive increase in recycling strategies with in UAE. This recycling project has been done to enhance educational experience through research through the internet and all the important steps taken for recycling awareness with especial emphasis on UAE. We tried to cover the areas of recycling of various types of wastes like paper, glass aluminum, E-waste etc.
There was also research on history done and few events and achievements.
We also agreed to visit a paper mill and experience the process of paper recycling an interview about te process and the importance of paper recycling.

What can and can't be recycled? (RECYCLABLE WASTE)
Gift Wrapping Paper
Paper bags
Glass jars & bottles
Tin or steel cans
Cardboard
Flatten all boxes
Telephone books
Junk mail
Magazines & catalogs
Newspapers & inserts
Office paper & file folders
Aluminum cans, foil & pie tins
Plastic bottles & containers - #1 and #2
Cereal boxes, paper towel rolls, etc.


NON RECYCLA

BLE WASTE
Gift Ribbon and Bows
Garbage
Styrofoam
Food waste

Ceramics or dishes
Motor oil
Window glass or mirrors
Hazardous waste
Yard waste
chemicals
Electronic


1. Protects Environment: The foremost benefit or recycling is that it helps in protecting the environment in the most balanced manner. While many trees are cut down continually, recycled paper made from certain trees is re-used repeatedly to minimize felling/ deforestation. With re-cycled paper as an outstanding example, a number of other natural resources can be reused this way.
2. Reduces Energy Consumption: A large amount of energy is consumed by processing raw materials at the time of manufacture. Recycling helps to minimize energy consumption, which is crucial for massive production, such mining or refining. This also makes the production process very cost-effective and beneficial for manufacturers.
3. Reduces Pollution: Industrial waste today is the main source of all types of pollution. Recycling of industrial products such as cans, chemical, plastics helps to cut down pollution levels considerably, as these materials are re-used, instead of throwing them away irresponsibly.
4: Reduces Global Warming: Recycling helps to alleviate global warming and its ill effects. Massive waste is burned in heaps which produces large amount of greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2 and CFC’s. Recycling ensure that the burning process is minimized and any waste is re-generated as a useful product with no or minimal harmful impact on the environment. Recycling produces less greenhouse gases as industries burn fewer fossil fuels for eco-friendly products.
5. Judicial and Sustainable use of Resources: Recycling promotes judicial and sustainable use of resources. This process ensures that there is no discriminate use of any material when available in plenty in the present.Recycling is encouraged at all levels, starting from school to corporate offices and at international levels. This means we can preserve all precious resources for our future generation, without any compromise in the present.
6. Conserves Natural Resources: If old and used materials are not recycled, the new products are made from extracting fresh raw materials from beneath the earth through mining and extraction. Recycling helps in conserving important raw materials and protects natural habitats for the future. Conserving natural resources such as wood, water and minerals ensures its optimum use.
7. Reduces Amount of Waste to Landfills: Recycling old and waste products into new products reduces the amount of waste that go to landfills. This helps in reducing water and land pollution as landfills are a major source in contributing to destruction of natural environment. Recycling programs keep 70 tons of waste from being deposited into landfills every year.
8. Create Green Jobs: Recycling is good for the environment and apart from that it also creates green jobs. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, green goods and services accounted for 3.1 million jobs in the United States

Advantages of Recycling
The glass is then crushed and melted, then moulded into new products such as bottles and jars. Or it may be used for alternative purposes such as brick manufacture or decorative uses.
The glass is then sent back to the shops ready to be used again
Glass does not degrade through the recycling process, so it can be recycled again and again.



• Glass is 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without loss in quality or purity – something no other food and beverage packaging option can claim.
• Glass is made from readily-available domestic materials, such as sand, soda ash, limestone and “cullet,” the industry term for furnace-ready scrap glass.
• The only material used in greater volumes than cullet is sand. These materials are mixed, or “batched,” heated to a temperature of 2600 to 2800 degrees Fahrenheit and molded into the desired shape.
• Recycled glass is substituted for up to 95% of raw materials.
• Manufacturers benefit from recycling in several ways: Recycled glass reduces emissions and consumption of raw materials, extends the life of plant equipment, such as furnaces, and saves energy

Water is a common substance that is essential to all known forms of life. Water covers 70 percent of the planet’s surface. On the planet Earth water is mostly found in oceans and large bodies of water. A tiny percentage of the world’s water is found in the bodies of plants and animals and in manufactured goods. The availability of safe drinking water in almost all areas of the world has increased to a large extent over the last few decades.Despite this fact some observers have interpolated that by 2025 a large part of the world’s population will be facing shortages of water.

How Can Water Recycling Benefit Us?

Recycling water is the use of treated and processed wastewater for useful purposes like agricultural irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, and groundwater replenishment which is also called a groundwater recharge, 70% of our earth is covered with water. Oceans store 97% of the total amount of water on earth, 2% of which is frozen. Of the freshwater on the planet, about 70% flows in the ground, mostly within half a mile from the surface. Consumable and fresh water is the need of every living being on earth. Humans, animals, other creatures, and agriculture all need water to survive and thrive. Without water our planet would become a vacant and barren wasteland.
1-Water recycling decreases the extraction of water form sources that may be dwindling and may stop being viable as habitats for valuable and endangered wildlife.


2- Recycling wastewater can decrease the discharge of effluents that may damage and pollute the ecosystems of the sensitive bodies of water.
3-Recycled water can be used to create new wetlands or to enhance and improve the quality of existing ones.
Water is life’s matter and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.”


On the recycling front, UAE residents are becoming more proactive. The Emirates Environmental Group has reported a large increase in its schools, corporate and community recycling drives which collect paper, plastic, glass, aluminium etc.
Established in 1987Union Paper Mills, owned by the well-known M.A.H.Y. Khoory Group of Dubai, brought in the paper recycling technology to the U.A.E. for the first time in GCC. It boasts a product range designed to meet local requirements.

The Emirates Environmental Group (EEG) collected aluminum cans weighing a total of 16,150kg for recycling in the year 2013. Since 1997, EEG has collected a total of 158,051kg of aluminum cans, resulting in the mitigation of around 2,370 MTe CO2, which has saved an estimated energy of 10,535 MWh.
Etisalat announced in 2012 its exclusive sponsorship of EnviroFone - the UAE national mobile phone and e-waste recycling campaign. Envirofone was launched in 2007 under the patronage of the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority and in partnership of the Federal Environmental Agency.

2009 will bring programmes such as a world first - 'The UAE Green Makeover', a College and University Educational campaign and many Business and Corporate services to promote the recycling of e-waste.
Emirates Aluminum (EMAL), currently building the largest single site aluminium smelter, continues its commitment to environmental protection by initiating waste recycling activities on its construction site to minimize its impact on the environment.
Since the inception of the EMAL smelter project, the company has recycled an average of one truck load per week, that includes 25.64 tonnes of wood, 31.4 tonnes of paper and cardboard, 1.65 tonnes of plastic, glass and cans and 40 tonnes of steel.

In addition, EMAL has already crushed and reused over 2,300 tonnes of waste concrete, with another 2000 tonnes stored on site awaiting the same.
Uae got the region's leader in waste management in 2008


Recycling of glass

How glass is recycled
The consumer throws glass into a recycle bin.
Glass is taken from the bin and taken to a glass treatment plant.
The glass is sorted by colour and washed to remove any impurities.


Recycling of grey water
Recycling Water

Glass Facts



• Alkaline/Zinc
• Nickel Cadmium – Dry- Wet
• Nickel Iron – Wet
• Lithium Ion
• Mercury
• Silver Oxide
• Button Cells
• Lead Acid – Steel Case
E-Scrap/Other
• Hybrid Automotive Battery Packs
• Capacitors
• PCs & Laptops
• CRT’s (Monitors)
• Flatscreens
• Keyboards
• Printers
• TVs
• Circuit Boards
• Battery Cabinets
• UPS Units
• Rectifiers
• Cell Phones
• 2-Way Radios
• Pagers
• Power Tools
• Calculators
• Portable Electronics
• Ink-Jet Cartridges
• Toner Cartridges
• Copper
• Lead
• Wheel Weights
• Aluminum
• Mercury Devices

Process of e- waste recycling

Reusing and recycling water:
Reusing and recycling alternative water supplies is a key part of reducing the pressure on our water resources and the environment. Helping us adapt to climate change and population growth. When considering alternative water supplies, you should choose the most appropriate water source, taking into account end use, risk, resource and energy requirements.

It is better to reduce water use and avoid generating wastewater in the first place, than to have to identify alternative water supplies and reuse options.
The water Conservation Hierarchy
You should look into reusing low-risk water sources, such as rainwater or stormwater, before recycling higher risk source water, such as greywater and sewage.
Integrated water recycling system will likely be clear winner in UAE..
The UAE has long relied on desalination of seawater to meet its daily need for fresh water. Desalinated seawater, particularly by means of thermal desalination, provides the major proportion of the water needed for domestic purposes in the country. However, the country has another resource to meet its further domestic water needs – wastewater. Much of the water used in our communities and businesses goes down the drains and pipes as wastewater, to be treated and returned to the environment. Of the 290 million cubic metres of wastewater produced every year in Abu Dhabi – the equivalent of 116,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools – approximately 60 per cent is treated and reused in a limited capacity, mostly for to make this a reality, we need to reduce the running costs of wastewater treatment plants. The process is currently lengthy, energy intensive, and costly – all of which makes it tempting not to bother, and just desalinate more seawater.
Recycling of e- waste
What is e waste?
Electronic waste, or e-waste, is a term for electronic products that have become unwanted, non-working or obsolete, and have essentially reached the end of their useful life. Because technology advances at such a high rate, many electronic devices become “trash” after a few short years of use. In fact, whole categories of old electronic items contribute to e-waste such as VCRs being replaced by DVD players, and DVD players being replaced by blu-ray players. E-waste is created from anything electronic: computers, TVs, monitors, cell phones, PDAs, VCRs, CD players, fax machines, printers, etc.
Obsolete electronic devices are rapidly filling the landfills of the globe. In the US alone, more than 100 million computers are thrown away with less than 20% being recycled properly. The EPA estimates as much as 60 million metric tons enter landfills every year. Most electronics that are improperly thrown away contain some form of harmful materials such as beryllium, cadmium, mercury and lead. These materials might be trace elements, but when added up in volume, the threat to the environment is significant. Besides adding harmful elements to the environment, improper disposal of e-waste is a recycling opportunity lost. Almost all electronic waste contains some form of recyclable material, including plastic, glass and metals.
Materials Accepted for e- waste recycling
Batteries
• Alkaline/Zinc
• Nickel Cadmium – Dry- Wet
• Nickel Iron – Wet
• Lithium Ion
• Mercury
• Silver Oxide
• Button Cells
• Lead Acid – Steel Case

What is e waste?
Electronic waste, or e-waste, is a term for electronic products that have become unwanted, non-working or obsolete, and have essentially reached the end of their useful life. Because technology advances at such a high rate, many electronic devices become “trash” after a few short years of use. In fact, whole categories of old electronic items contribute to e-waste such as VCRs being replaced by DVD players, and DVD players being replaced by blu-ray players. E-waste is created from anything electronic: computers, TVs, monitors, cell phones, PDAs, VCRs, CD players, fax machines, printers, etc.
Obsolete electronic devices are rapidly filling the landfills of the globe. In the US alone, more than 100 million computers are thrown away with less than 20% being recycled properly. The EPA estimates as much as 60 million metric tons enter landfills every year. Most electronics that are improperly thrown away contain some form of harmful materials such as beryllium, cadmium, mercury and lead. These materials might be trace elements, but when added up in volume, the threat to the environment is significant. Besides adding harmful elements to the environment, improper disposal of e-waste is a recycling opportunity lost. Almost all electronic waste contains some form of recyclable material, including plastic, glass and metals.

What does e-waste consist of ?

Plastic
All plastics are sent to a recycler who uses the raw material to manufacture items such as vineyard stakes, fence posts and plastic sleepers.

Metal

Scrap metals are sent to a recycler. They are placed through a shredder before magnetic systems separate the ferrous from the non ferrous materials. The resulting product is used in the manufacture of new steel and other metal products.



Glass

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) glass, used in computer monitors and televisions, are a major issue because they incorporate many hazardous materials. Lead is the most prevalent toxic material in CRT glass; it is poisonous to the nervous system and can remain in the human body for years. Tubes in a large CRT monitor can contain up to 4 kg of lead as well as other toxic metals such as phosphor and barium.5 To obtain the highest environmental outcome it is necessary to send the glass to CRT Recycling Australia located in South Australia where it will be processed to specification before being used in the manufacture of new CRT monitors and televisions.









Mercury

Mercury is commonly found within many e-waste items. Highly toxic, even in small amounts, it has been known to cause damage to the lungs, kidneys, brain, nervous and reproductive systems. Given the opportunity to leach into water and soil, it is able to be ingested by aquatic creatures and then through the food chain into our diet. 5 To avoid these consequences, we remove mercury containing devices such as tubes and lamps and forward these to an EPA approved mercury recycling plant. Here they use technology that captures the mercury for use in dental amalgams, separates the glass for use as glass wool in home insulation and takes out the phosphor powder for use in fertilizer products.

Wood

Commonly found in older televisions, stereos and speakers, wood is sent to recycling companies who either shred it for use as mulch or use innovative technology to mix it with other waste materials for use as an alternative fuel source.

Printed Circuit Boards


Circuit boards are sent to ISO 14001 (Environmental Management) accredited companies. Here they can be processed in specialised smelters to recover non renewable resources such as copper, gold, silver, palladium and other precious metals.

Hard Drives

Hard drives, in whole and shredded form, are sent to an aluminium foundry for processing into aluminium ingots. The majority of aluminium ingots are used within the automotive industry.

Toner and Ink Cartridges

Toner and Ink cartridges are packaged in a sealed box and returned to industry recyclers. Some will be remanufactured into new cartridges, and the remainder that can’t be remanufactured will be separated into plastic and metal and returned to the recycle chain as raw materials.

Batteries
Nickel Cadmium, Nickel Metal Hydride & Lithium Ion batteries are sent, under our recycling partners special export permit, to SNAM (Société Nouvelle D’affinage Des Métaux) a French based company who meets the European Union’s strict environmental standards. The material is hulled to remove excess plastic, and then the metals placed in special smelter pots to recover cobalt, cadmium, nickel and steel for reuse in a range of areas such as battery production and stainless steel fabrication.

CD ROMs, Sound & Memory cards
For copyright and security reasons these products are shredded before being sent to plastic and metal recyclers.
Benefits of e Waste Recycling

The growing e-waste problem can be solved by electronics recycling. Many electronics are made up of various materials, such as metals, which are recyclable. Dismantling end-of-life electronics such as computers and recycling the various materials in them promotes the conservation of undamaged natural resources. Also, it helps in the prevention of water and air pollution that is brought about by hazardous disposal. In addition, it also helps in reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced as a result of the manufacture of new electronics.

Recycling old electronics is the most effective way of dealing with the growing problem of e-waste.

Having an obsolete computer or any other old electronic in the house is a common feature in many homes in the U.S. Approximately two million tons of used electronics such as televisions and computers are disposed of annually, and around 128 million mobile phones are discarded in a similar period. Therefore, it is important that people are educated on the benefits of electronics recycling. This is because there are many benefits of reusing or recycling old electronics rather than disposing them of in landfills.

Electronics Recycling Conserves Natural Resources

There are many materials that can be recovered from old electronics. These materials can be used to make new products, thus reducing the need to mine for new raw materials. For instance, various metals can be recovered from computer circuit boards and other electronics, and the plastics and glass found in computer monitors and televisions can be recycled

Electronics Recycling Supports the Community

Donating your old electronics plays an important role in the provision of refurbished products such as computers and mobile phones, which can be of great help to low-income families, schools, and not-for-profit organizations. It also helps individuals gain access to technology that they could not have otherwise afforded
.

How is the paper recycled?

Paper is taken from the bin and deposited in a large recycling container along with paper from other recycling bins.

The paper is taken to a recycling plant where it is separated into types and grades.
Electronics Recycling Creates Employment Locally

Considering that around 90 percent of electronic equipment is recyclable, electronics recycling can play a significant role in creating employment. This is because new firms dealing with electronics recycling will form and existing firms will look to employ more people to recover recyclable materials. This can be triggered by the increase in the demand for electronics recycling.

Electronics Recycling Helps Protect Public Health and the Environment

Many electronics have toxic or hazardous materials such as mercury and lead, which can be harmful to the environment if disposed of in trashcans. Reusing and recycling electronics safely helps in keeping the hazardous materials from harming humans or the environment. For example, televisions and computer monitors are hazardous since they have lead in them. Printed circuit boards contain harmful materials such as cadmium, lead, mercury and chromium. Also, batteries in computers and other electronics may contain hazardous materials such as cadmium, mercury and lead.
Instead of keeping old electronics in the house or dumping them in landfills, recycling or reusing them is an appropriate option that should be supported by individuals and organizations. Considering the benefits of electronics recycling, it is very important that people in various parts around the world embrace this concept.

Paper

Paper recycling is the process of turning waste paper into new paper products. There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstock for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.[1] Mill broke is paper trimmings and other paper scrap from the manufacture of paper, and is recycled internally in a paper mill.

Factors affecting recycling

The opportunities presented for recycling of materials are very much dependent on the individual circumstances of your own institution and your recycling contractors. The likely success of such initiatives may depend on:
• collection method (segregated or mixed materials)
• space for collection and storage of reusable and recyclables
• geographical location, particularly in relation to markets for reprocessing materials

Problems with Recycling:

Problems:
Recycling takes time to sort and dump items. Usually, this also means a loss of finances somewhere. Someone has to be paid for the time it takes to sort the items.

Solutions:
While dumping the waste one can help a lot by separating the waste by dumping in the separate bins that the government has set up for easy sorting to lessen the effort of sorting and saving tym for the recycling company.
Problem:
Items have to be dry. Paper cannot get wet, because people do not want to deal with it then. On the same note, people are less willing to dump aluminum cans that still have liquid in them.

The separated paper is then washed with soapy water to remove inks, plastic film, staples and glue. The paper is put into a large holder where it is mixed with water to create ‘slurry’.
By adding different materials to the slurry, different paper products can be created, such as cardboard, newsprints or office paper.
The slurry is spread using large rollers into large thin sheets.

The paper is left to dry, and then it is rolled up ready to be cut and sent back to the shops.



Established in 1987 Union Paper Mills, owned by the well-known M.A.H.Y. Khoory Group of Dubai, brought in the paper recycling technology to the U.A.E. for the first time in GCC. It boasts a product range designed to meet local requirements.
The mill produces Fluting medium and Test Liner papers for the manufacture of corrugated cartons. Also Unbleached Core Board is manufactured for use by core pipe manufacturers. All products at Union Paper Mills are manufactured from recyclable waste paper using sophisticated technology and the process adheres to very high anti-pollution measures.
As part of its expansion programme and to keep pace with the increased demand of the region for the products required by the packaging industry and to maintain the group's philosophy of continuous growth in business, in May 2005, Union Paper Mill commissioned a second paper machine having a capacity of producing 108,000 tons of paper per annum.
The second machine is also capable of producing value added products such as semi Kraft and White Top Test Liner for the first time in the Emirates. The new facility is compatible in all respects to ensure the company's objective of pollution free working environment.
The new machine too is based on use of recycled fibre for production. To supplement the additional demand of recycled fiber for its captive consumption, a large waste paper yard capable of sorting, baling and supplying almost 500 tons of waste paper per day to the mill was developed near the factory. Use of waste paper for production of finished paper by UPM is in line with the UAE's philosophy of a pollution free environment for the country.
The Paper Mill has strong customer base in UAE, across GCC, Northern Africa and South Asia. The Mill is professionally managed and employs people of exceptional technical caliber for running the mill. The strength of the mill is the quality and customer service."

Solutions :
One should not dump food and drinks and other waste in the same bin. Paper bins should be different from food bins and can bins should be different from paper bins.

Problem:
A convenient location has to be made for bins. This also includes recycling dumpsters. The space a container takes could mean a few less parking places. Also, this location must be in a suitable place that people will actually use.

Solutions:
There should separate departments set up that collect recycling items from many places like school, hotels, offices and bring them to a collectable point where it can be easily taken by recycling company for recycling.


Conclusion

We took a good idea about recycling by doing the project together. Each member searched for the assigned topic, then we shared our information. We learned to take care of our environment and we agreed to the idea that recycling is very important and useful for the waste problem of our modern life. We can reduce waste and protect environment and at the same time we can save our earth for the future generation and encourage to put more efforts to conserve our earth.

Rreferences

http://www.thenational.ae/uae/recycling-in-the-uae
http://www.emiratesrecycling.com/
http://www.benefits-of-recycling.com/recyclingprocess/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling
http://www.earth911.com/living/art-entertainment/recycle-your-own-paper/

Evaluation
Evaluation of leader for the team members shamim mohammad (FN133742)

Aysha alktebi (Ba 123121)

Shaima Faheem (ABA1321634)

Amira Ali (BBA1321711)

Thuwaiba Thani

Fatima Ali (BIT1321726)



A final project and presentation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in
ENVT 105 Environmental Studies and

ENV 100 Introduction to Environmental Studies and Issues
Spring Semester, Academic Year 2014
Submitted to:

Prof. Mary Ann Mendoza Cruz
Instructor/Lecturer

HISTORY
Paper recycling in UAE
UNION PAPER MILLS

Materials Accepted for
e- waste recycling Batteries
Full transcript