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05 Lungs

Lab 05
by

Rob Mead

on 14 October 2014

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Transcript of 05 Lungs

Lab 05
Lungs
The lungs are the primary
respiratory
organ.
Humans have two lungs – a right lung and a left lung.
The lungs are complex.
The lungs have about 2,400 km of airways and between 300 and 500 million
alveoli
(air sacs).
The lungs have two main jobs...
#1 They get oxygen into the blood.
Your heart and your lungs are a team.
Your heart's job is to push your oxygenated blood around...
The lungs connect to the respiratory tract.
The lungs have to be connected to an air supply in the outside world.
The lungs are powered by the diaphragm.
Oh, yeah. Smoking is bad for your lungs...
Most pictures relating to cigarettes, smoking, and lung disease are too disgusting to show you.
The right lung has three
lobes
and the left lung has two lobes.
Each lung weighs about 1 kg in adults.
The total surface area of all the alveoli put together is about 70 m — about the same as one side of a tennis court.
2
The lungs are controlled by the
sympathetic nervous system. They are on
autopilot
, so you don't have to stay awake all night and think about breathing.
#2 They rid the blood of carbon dioxide waste.
With each breath, you
import
O (shown
in red) and you
export
CO (shown in blue).
Imagine your car under water... without air it would not work.
And your lungs' job is to load your blood cells up with oxygen.
Neither one would be able to do its job effectively without the help of the other.
The heart and lungs are so closely related that the life-saving technique of CPR actually refers to Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation.
The air goes through the nose and mouth, down the
pharynx
(throat), and past the larynx (voicebox).
Atmospheric pressure always pushes toward a low-pressure area (also known as a partial vacuum).
Here is what your healthy pink lungs, looks like next to a smoker's diseased tar-stained lungs.
In short, cigarette smoke is filled with tiny particles and harmful chemicals that clog up the tiny alveoli and lead to deadly diseases like lung cancer, COPD, and
emphysema
.
The left lung gives up some space for the heart.
The lungs monitor themselves (check their oxygen and carbon dioxide levels) and respond accordingly.
Now imagine your car without an exhaust pipe...
... it would explode!
2
2
The same is true if your lungs aren't working..
.
Time out for CPR
The rescuers breathe air into the victim's mouth
and pump their heart by pushing on the victim's chest.
You have to do it correctly: Just breathing air or just pumping on the chest won't have any positive effect.
The nose and mouth are important.
The nose filters out dust, germs, and insects. It detects smoke and
noxious
gasses. And it warms up cold air.
It then goes down the
trachea
(windpipe) into the two main bronchial tubes and further divides in the lungs.
In addition to being sensory organs, the nose and mouth have a
vital
role in respiratory function.
The mouth
bypasses
the nose, so if the nose is stuffed up — you won't suffocate.
In short, the nose and mouth are important tools for protecting the delicate tissues of the lungs and for guaranteeing your safety.
The lungs are powered by the diaphragm.
The diaphragm is a large flat muscle at the bottom of the rib cage that flexes up and down —
The diaphragm does not pull on the lungs, but it increases the
volume
inside the rib cage.
It gives our chest the familiar "breathing" motion.
The increased volume means that there is a low pressure area inside the lungs — so atmospheric pressure pushes air toward that low pressure area!
When the diaphragm relaxes, the lungs collapse under the weight of the surrounding tissue and the air in the lungs is expelled.
When the diaphragm is pulled (when the muscle contracts), the volume inside the rib cage expands and atmospheric pressure
pushes
air into the lung sac.
Consider this simple mechanical model of a lung...
rib cage
lung sac
diaphragm
windpipe
When the diaphragm is released (when the muscle relaxes), the volume inside the rib cage shrinks and the air is
pushed
out of the lung sac.
If you smoke... stop.
If you're thinking of smoking, don't do it.
It's shocking.
If you know someone who smokes, help them quit.
Second-hand smoke is dangerous too...
Full transcript