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WWI and setup for WWII

Chapter 11 US History
by

Jillian Kistler

on 28 November 2016

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Transcript of WWI and setup for WWII

THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918
Why were so many nations pulled into conflict over one man's actions?
AND THE WAR BEGINS...
TRIPLE ALLIANCE [Central Powers] vs TRIPLE ENTENTE [Allied Powers]
Tensions-
Nationalism, competition, militarism, alliances, Balkan Powder Keg
June 28,1914
- Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip
Serbia turns down A-H 's ultimatum... war starts
JULY 28, 1914
Germany
invades Belgium, must fight a 2 front war
Positives-
temporary relief from internal division... nationalism unites
In your opinion...
Should you always support an ally? What would the consequences be if you refused to help an ally?
Eastern Front
Western Front
Nations Take Sides
Central Powers
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Bulgaria
Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers [Allies]
Great Britain
France
Russia
Japan
Italy[ left Triple Alliance]
Aug 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia
Italy accuses Germany of unjustly starting war
Words to KNOW...
Stalemate= state of inaction
deadlock= standstill
battlefields= areas of conflict
Outskirts= perimeter
Taxicabs= hired cars
At the Battle of Somme, a soldier was expected to carry:
a rifle
,
a bayonet
,
grenades
,
170 rounds of ammunition
, a gas mask,
a shovel & wire cutters
,
a full water bottle
,
food rations
,
extra clothing
, medical supplies,
and a portable cooking stove with fuel
. Totaling
~66 lbs
on their backs they still had to make it across "no man's land" alive!!!!
GERMAN BATTLE STRATEGY...
Schlieffen Plan
[SHLEE-fuhn] = attacking France in the west then rushing to the east to defeat Russia.
Germans thought
lack of industrialization
in Russia would be an advantage against the Red Army.
Plan required a
swift victory
in France... but resulted in Germans
retreating Sept 1914
thanks to the Allies
This was the
1st major clash
on the Western Front... outside of Paris
Western Front quickly became a
stalemate
TRENCH WARFARE
Western front was basically a 500 mile trench from the North Sea to the Swiss border
Trenches were full of rats, disease, mud/stale water, fresh food was a luxury; sleep=impossible
Space between opposing trenches= "no man's land"
Attacks by land and air... machine guns, artillery, in general shells of ALL calibers were cause for concern
Battle of Somme 1916
Germans attack outside of French Verdun each side loses 300,000
July 1916 G.B. attacks attacks in the Valley of the Somme river. Day 1- 20,000+ British die
By November each side lost half a million+
Gains... Germans moved ~4 miles, GB moved ~5 miles.
New tools of war played a hug part in making killing more people super efficient!
Whose fighting?
Germans & Austro-Hungarians
vs.

Russians & Serbs
Eastern Front aka The Frozen Front
Russian Struggles
: continual short supply of food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, blankets; Germans controlled the Baltic Sea
Positive
... massive #s... plenty of replacement soldiers!
Gallipoli Campaign
Allies attack the Ottoman Empire w/the hopes of opening a supply line to Russia (FEB 1915)
Area called the Dardanelles {goal=take over Constantinople}
May 1915 Gallipoli + bloody stalemate
Dec 1915 Allies evacuate w/250,000 casualties
Battles Spread...
Countries start fighting over their imperial colonies
Japan takes German outposts in China & Pacific Islands
African colonies begin changing imperial hands
Mohandas Gandhi-- supports Indian involvement in war if it will improve status w/GB
U-Boats
Extremely dangerous
Effective
Difficult to detect
Sinking of the Lusitania May 7,1915
1,198 people died [128= US Citizens]
UNITED STATES JOINS THE WAR!
1917 War shifts to the high seas
May 7, 1915
causes President Woodrow Wilson to send protests to Germany
January 1917
Germans begin
unrestricted submarine

warfare
... any ship will be sunk in the waters around GB
During the German Blockade of GB, Germany sinks 3 American Ships [Wilson warns Germany]
Feb 1917
US intercepts German Foreign secretary's note to MEXICO...
Arthur Zimmermann Note
[MAIN REASON WHY US ENTERED THE WAR!]
Know what the Zimmermann Note said!
WWI PROPAGANDA
What was the point of rationing?
The
Allies
WIN
the
War!!!
RUSSIA
: March 1917 [civil war begins];
November 1917 signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germans throw ALL forces to Western front
July 1918
: Bulgarians & Ottomans surrender
Oct. Revolution in Austria-Hungary = surrender
Nov 9, 1918: German Kaiser [Wilhelm II] steps down
Nov 11, 1918 @ 11am the armistice was signed
by Commander Marshal Foch [French] and a German representative
COSTS OF THE WAR
8.5 million died
21 million wounded
20 million world wide died from the influenza epidemic
$338 billion total cost
What else did the war cost the world?
Influenza Pandemic 1918
Spread because of the War
Killed
MORE
people than the War
Spread very rapidly
Peace built of Quicksand
January 18, 1919
: BIG FOUR [among others] met @ Palace of Versailles for what is known as
Paris Peace Talks
.
President
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
- designed to create lasting peace {PAGE 647}
France & G.B. not fond of the Fourteen points; wanted to strip Germany of its war-making power
Comprise was signed on
June 28, 1919
[5 years & 1 day after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand] known as the
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
(1 of 5 treaties to end the war conflicts)
Article 231
: harshest article of the Treaty... places SOLE BLAME on Germany for the war
Results of the Treaty:
New nations
- Austria; Hungary; Czechoslovakia; Yugoslavia; Palestine; Iraq; Transjordan; Syria, Lebanon; Finland; Estonia; Latvia; Lituania
[ Turkey = old Ottoman Empire; Romania and Poland gain Russian Land ]
UNITED STATES REJECTS the TREATY!
They want to stay out of European affairs
Germany, Italy, and Japan
become very
bitter
over results...
Revolutions in Russia
Czars Resist Change...
1881:
Alexander III
becomes czar; continues
absolute autocracy of the czar
; ex. strict censorship; secret police, political prisoners sent to Siberian camps; Russian = official lang.; pogroms targeted Jews through violence and terror
1894:
Nicholas II
[the last Romanov czar]; launched an industrialization program [ranked #4 in the world steel production]; Oversaw the
creation of the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
Leader of Russia during WWI
Rapid industrialization creates problems... [
page 868
] leading to a Marxist revolution calling for the proletariat to rule the country
2 types of Marxists:
Mensheviks
= moderate, broad base of popular support;
Bolsheviks
= radical; small # willing to sacrifice everything for change; leader
Vladimir Lenin
. [Lenin fled to western Europe in the early 1900s to avoid arrest]
Late 1880s-1904:
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR
: fought over control of Korea and Manchuria; signed agreements but Russia violated them;Feb 1904 Japan attacks Russian port of Arthur, Manchuria...
BLOODY SUNDAY: Jan 22, 1905- 200,000
workers march to the Czar's palace in St. Petersburg to ask for better wages, more personal freedom and an elected national gov't; Czar orders the crowd to be fired upon, kills several hundred and wounding 1,000... results in strikes across the country,
Oct 1905
creates the
DUMA
[Russian Parliament],
Duma
meets 1st time May 1906 and is dissolved 10 weeks later
WEAKEST POINT FOR THE CZAR
: Czar Nicholas II and his generals failed during
WWI
, 1915 Czar moves to the front lines, leaves
Czarina Alexandra
to run the government,
Rasputin
to manipulate her...
Rasputin is assassinated
...
March 1917: Revolution!

Czar steps down
after women and textile workers go on a massive strike in Petrograd
1918: Last Czar of Russia is ASSASSINATED!
Crisis at Home & Abroad
The Bolshevik Revolution
Germany
arranges for Lenin to return to Russia
Lenin's slogan upon return= "Peace, Land, and Bread"... very popular
Lenin replaces Alexander Kerensky
and gives control of the factories to the workers
Bolshevik government signs Brest-Litovsk with Germany
Opponents of the Bolsheviks =
WHITE ARMY
; 2 sub groups- together they shared
1 goal... defeat the Bolsheviks and unite the White Army
U.S.
[& others] sent aid to
support
the White Army
14 million die during the Russian Civil War
Red Army crushes all opposition
Lenin restores order through his
New Economic Policy
, reorganizing Russia into self-governing republics under one central government [=
USSR
]
Lenin established a
dictatorship of the Communist Party
not a dictatorship of the Proletariat
Stalin assumes total power in 1928
.
TOTALITARIANISM
=
form of gov't where National gov't controls ALL aspects of public & Private life. It seeks to erase boundaries

between gov't and society
police terror; indoctrination; Censorship; religious/ethnic persecution
Use sections 1 & 2 of Chapter 30 to describe the following categories under Joseph Stalin
Education
Totalitarian State
Religion
The Economy
Daily life
Overall achievement of control
The Collapse of Imperial CHINA
The Last Emperor and WWI
1911
: The LAST emperor is over thrown [ Qing Dynasty lasted since 1644]
Sun Yixian
= president of the new
Republic of China
: government plan 1) nationalism 2) people's rights 3) livelihood/ economic security
Sun Yixian could not unify the country- turned over to a military general, general dies, civil war breaks out in 1916
WWI
: 1917 declares war on Germany, in hopes of gaining back stolen territory, Allies give territories to Japan
May 4, 1919-
May Fourth Movement
- 3,000 angry students' response to the Treaty of Versailles- gathered in Beijing and protested
1921:
Mao Zedong
develops the
Chinese Communist Party
... different than Lenin's communism.
Chaing Kai-shek
takes over in 1925: promised democracy and political rights to all, yet corruption led to little improvements
Civil War Rages
Jiang's
Nationalists and
Mao's
Communists work together to fight the warlords and armed gangs of China
April 1927:
Nationalist massacre & nearly wipe out Chinese Communist Party
1928
: Jiang becomes president: U.S. and GB acknowledge him causing a
civil war to rage until 1949
Mao turns to the countryside & guerrilla warfare
1933:
LONG MARCH.
.. {page 885-886}
Civil war is
suspended due to Japanese attacks
causing temporary unification of Nationalist & Communists
6,000 mile long march... took a year
The Great Depression
Long Term Causes: * world economies are connected * war debts * European reliance on American loans * Wealth is unequally distributed
Immediate causes: * U.S. stock market crash * banks demand loan repayment * reduction of foreign trade * Americans stop loans to foreign countries * American banks fail
WORLD WIDE DEPRESSION
Immediate effects:* unemployment sky rockets* businesses bankrupt * citizens lose faith in capitalism and democracy
Long term effects: * Nazis take control of Germany * Rise in fascist countries * Democracies start welfare * WWII breaks out
World Wide Depression
Post War Problems...
Inexperience
with representative government
Political parties
= difficult governing
Frequent government
changes made long term goals hard to accomplished
WEIMAR REPUBLIC
1919 German democratic government
Issues
- political parties; weak democratic tradition; war guilt placed on W.R. instead of war time government
SEVERE INFLATION
... 1mark -160 marks- 200 billion marks from 1918-1922-1923
America loans
Germany $200 billion ...
Lasting peace? 1925 signed a treaty to ensure France + Germany would never go to war against each other; war no longer a political option...
Enforcement?
How Does the Stock Market
Crash
?
Use pages 709-710 to fill in the gaps
Name
2 successful improvements
to economies during the Depression
Who is
F
ranklin
D
.
R
oosevelt?
What does
he
have to do with the
Great Depression
?
FASCISM Takes Hold in Europe
Political movement that emphasizes
loyalty to the state
and
obedience to its leader
No
clearly
defined theory
or program; extreme form of nationalism
In general
- fascists believe the nation must struggle, peaceful nations are doomed to be conquered; wear uniforms of a certain color, used special salutes, and held mass rallies
How is
FASCISM similar to COMMUNISM?
IL Duce
der Fuhrer
Rise
Rise
Goals:
Goals:
Use Pages 910-914 to analyze the above Fascist leaders' rise to power and their goals.
Appeasement vs Isolationism
Are these philosophies ever effective?

How did they contribute redistribution of land, violation of peace treaties, and the rising tensions that lead to WWII?
Chronicle the AGGRESSIVE events and the restructuring of Europe.
1/2 of your team will compile the facts while the other 1/2 with animate/illustrate the aggression

YOU HAVE 25 MINUTES... Use your time WISELY
Aggression in Europe, Africa, & Asia
USE PAGES ...
TURN TO PAGE 377

Analyze the Graph and answer
Questions 1 and 2
*Should the US have joined sides with the Central Alliance?
ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
Armenians
- ethnic group in Turkey who support the Allied Powers in hopes of gaining their freedom from the Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Turks begin a campaign to eliminate ALL ARMENIANS...
METHODS
: deportation, starvation, abandonment in the dessert, etc
Years- 1905, 1915-1918
Death toll
- ~2 million [only 100,000 survive]
Serves as an example for
ADOLPH HITLER
The
US NEVER
formally recognized the Armenian Genocide...WHY?!?!? [23 countries do]
WWI PROPAGANDA CREATION
Create you own original piece of propaganda for WWI
PICK A SIDE
-
Allied or Central Powers
GOAL
:
INSPIRE people to join your cause
Draw

your

ORIGINAL

propaganda
MUST BE COLORED
Needs to be
NEAT
.
.. sloppy work will not suffice
Post War Changes
Use the text to describe the changes to society.
CHANGES TO SOCIETY
SOCIAL CHANGES
CULTURAL CHANGES
Picasso- Cubism
Salvador Dali
Flappers
JAZZ
CONSUMER CULTURE!
Prohibition- 1920-1930
THE ROARING 20s?
THE ROARING 20s!!!
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
The 1929 Stock Market Crash
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
Causes
Effects
Reactions
Answer questions 1 & 2 PAGE 709
HINT: Page 711
Postwar Foreign Policy
What is the Maginot line?
What is the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
How does the League of Nations fail?
ANALYZE the Political Cartoon
PAGE
See Page 379 for full list
AKA Triple Alliance
AKA Triple Entente
Full transcript