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A Journey throught the Digestive System

Journey of the Digestive System
by

Nicole Schwehr

on 19 June 2013

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Transcript of A Journey throught the Digestive System

By: Brianna Talbot and Nicole Schwehr
A Journey Through the Digestive System
Legend:
When you eat, your
teeth
begin the process of digestion by mechanically breaking down the food so the nutrients can be absorbed later on in the body.
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The Pyloric Sphincter ...
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The Duodenum is 23-28 cm long and forms a c-shape curve. This is the widest part of the small intestine a.nd this is where pancreatic juices and bile flow making the duodenum largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process
The 3 main parts:
The Digestive System:
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The nutrients that were absorbed in your small intestine, are then passed on to your liver through your blood stream. The liver filters out harmful substances and waste, turning some of the waste into bile. One of the functions of the liver is to help figure out how many nutrients will go to the rest of the body, and how many will stay for storage. The nutrients include
proteins
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carbohydrates
, and
fat
.
Your pancreas is a long narrow gland that is considered to be both ductal and ductless.
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By definition, the Digestive system is the process of making food able to be absorbed by dissolving it and breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds that occur in the living body
There are four types of
teeth
in your mouth:
1) Incisors: are located at the front of your jaw and are flat and chisel-shaped
2) Canines: have a single pointed surface called a cusp
3) Premolars: are located between the canines and the molars, they also have two cusps
4) Molars: are teeth that have three or four blunt cusps and are located at the back of the mouth
The Tongue ...
Your Tongue
is a muscle that assists in speech, chewing and swallowing. As the food is broken down by your teeth, your tongue helps to guide and maintain the food between the upper and lower teeth
The tongue also contains groups of specialized epithelial cells, or taste buds. These glands also produce some of the

saliva

necessary for swallowing
Chemical Digestion
Macronutrients
Accessory Organs
Five Steps of the Digestive System
The Hard Palate and Uvula ...
Your Hard Palate is formed by the horizontal portions of the two palatine bones and the palatine portions of the upper jaws. It's covered by a thick, pale layer of mucous that is continuous with the gums
Your uvula hangs free from the postier of the soft palate and plays a role in the articulation of your voice
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The
salivary glands
are controlled by the nervous system. Secretion of saliva is constant, regardless of food in the mouth, approximately 1-1.5 liters of saliva in 24 hours. When something touches the gums, the tongue, or some region of the mouth lining, or when chewing, the amount of saliva secreted increases.
There are three types of
Salivary Glands:

1)
Parotid
: the largest and located at the side of the face, below the front of each ear

2)
Submaxillary
: rounded in shape and lies near the inner side of the lower jawbone

3)
Sublingual
: dissolves some of the chewed food and acts a lubricant for passage through digestive tract
The Cardiac Sphincter ...
The Pharynx ...
Your Pharynx is a passageway leading from your mouth and nose to your esophagus and larynx. It allows the passage of the chewed food and liquids to the esophagus.
The Epiglottis ...
Your Epiglottis serves as a lid for the larynx. This prevents food and drink from entering the larynx during swallowing.
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Your Cardiac Sphincter is where the esophagus joins the stomach .

This is the last spot for the food before it is passed on into the stomach for further digestion.
Chemical Digestion
Macronutrients
Accessory Organs
Five Steps of the Digestive System
Legend:
Your Pyloric Sphincter is located at the base of your stomach. It's a contracting ring of muscles that guards the entrance to the small intestine. The pyloric sphincter keeps the stomach shut so your food has a chance to digest in the stomach acids. Once the
proteins have had a chance to digest, it opens and allows the contents of the stomach to empty into the small intestine.
Your Small Intestine is the principle organ of the digestive tract. The primary purpose of the small intestine is to provide mixing and transportation of its contents.
The Jejunum (forms the upper two-fifths of the small intestine) and the ileum and is mainly responsible for the absorption of nutrients into the blood stream
The small intestine is 3 to 4 cm in diameter and approximately 7 meters in length. It's estimated absorptive surface is 4500 square meters.
The small intestine is a long muscular tube, made of smooth muscles, that push the food through the long tube by using
peristalsis
. The enzymes released from the pancreas and liver aid in breaking down the food so your body can absorb all the
vitamins
,
minerals
,
proteins
,
carbohydrates
, and
fats
. This may take as long as 4 hours because the contents start out semi-sold, and end in a liquid form.
The main functions are preformed by the 3 main parts of the small intestine:
Peristalsis...
Peristalsis is when smooth muscles, like the ones found in your intestines, esophagus, and stomach, cooperate to move liquid and solid food along the digestive tract.
It is essential if you swallow lying down.
Peristalsis is a wave like action to propel food forward
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and Appendix ...
Your liver is considered to be the largest gland in the body and the most complex in function.
The liver is composed of two unequal lobes, with the right being the larger of the two.
It produces an important digestive enzyme that are transmitted into the small intestine. The pancreas also produces two important hormones (insulin and glucagon) that help in the regulation of
carbohydrate metabolism
.
The pancreas also secrets bicarbonate which neutralizes the acid secreted by the stomach. This allows the digestive enzymes to act at their peak efficiency.
Your Gallbladder is a small organ that looks like a green sac about the size of a kiwi. It stores bile that is not needed right away for digestion. It concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions. Many people go through life and need to get it removed, there fore it isn't an overly important part of the digestive system.

The appendix is a tubular off shoot that is a part of the large intestine. It is used as a filter for toxins , but really isn't needed for a lot, like the gallbladder, some people do get it removed and live without it.
Your Large Intestine serves as a reservoir for the leftover-food residue that has just passed through the small intestine This is one of the last stops your food makes before exiting the body.

The large intestine is a last chance for water and some minerals to be absorbed into the blood. As the waste moves through the large intestine by peristalsis , it becomes harder and harder because of the water leaving it.
The 3 main Parts...
1) Ascending Colon
2) Traverse Colon
3) Descending Colon
The large intestine also helps to maintain levels of of solutes in the body. Its also secretes mucus, so your 1.5-2 liters of chyme can pass through easily.
The stomach is a hollow organ located in the upper left abdomen, and is generally composed of three different layers of muscle layers.

The stomach holds food while being mixed with enzymes, which helps with the breakdown of food. Cells in the stomach lining secrete a strong acid, which also helps with food break down. Once everything is successfully processed, they get released into the small intestine.
The Four Main parts..
The stomach has four main parts.
1) Cardia: opening from the esophagus to the stomach
2) Fundus: the upper most part, adapts to volume of ingested food and usually contains a gas bubble.
3)Body: which is the largest part, serves as a reservoir for food and drink.
4) Antrum: the lowest part is the entry into the small intestine.
The Rectum
...
The rectum is the final stop on the track of the digestive system! It is normally empty because stool is stored higher up in the descending colon. Once this becomes full our stool is dropped down into the rectum which causes our urge for bowel movement.
The Anal Sphincter ...
The anal canal has to sphincters, an internal and an external. The internal sphincter is made of smooth muscle and the external is made of skeletal muscle. The sphincters act a lot like purse stings the open and close the anus. These sphincters normally stay closed, except during defecation.
Emulsification
occurs in the small intestine with the help of bile secreted from the liver. Fats are usually too large to be digested or absorbed so with the help of emulsification the fats can be broken down (physical process, not chemical).
Emulsification...
Emulsification is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally non mixable.

In the small intestine those liquids are the bile from the liver and fats.
The end of the Journey ...
Full transcript