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TYPES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
Transcript of TYPES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
WHAT IS ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS ?
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION is a way through witch plants reproduce from the cells of a single parent. Is the simplest form of reproduction found in plants. It involves either the division of the plant body into two or more parts or the formation of spores. It is of three common forms: budding, fragmentation and spore formation etc.
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REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
The process of reproducing young ones from their parents is known as reproduction. plants reproduce through asexual, vegetative and sexual means.
Microscopic organisms such as yeasts reproduce asexually by budding. In this process a small bulb like cellular outgrowth, called bud is formed from the cell. This bud keeps on increasing in size and forms an independent organism which separates from the parent.
It is a very common form of asexual reproduction found in algae. Some algae, such as spirogyra, fucus. etc., are the slimy, green, and small plants seen floating on the surface of ponds or in dirty drains. In this process, the adult organism just breaks up into two or more pieces called fragments. Each of these fragments grows up to become a new plant.
Some plants such as ferns and mosses multiply asexually through spores. spores are microscopic single-celled or several-celled reproductive bodies that are mostly spherical in shape. They are protected by a thick wall when conditions such as humidity and temperature are unfavorable. Once the conditions for germination are favorable, these spores burst out of the thick wall, start multiplying, and grow into new plants.
In binary fission, the parent organism is replaced by two daughter organisms, because it literally divides in two. Organisms, both prokaryotes (the archaea and the bacteria), and eukaryotes (such as protists and unicellular fungi), reproduce asexually through binary fission; most of these are also capable of sexual reproduction.
Agamogenesis is any form of reproduction that does not involve a male gamete. Examples are parthenogenesis and apomixis.
Parthenogenesis is a form of agamogenesis in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in many plants, invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, rotifers, aphids, stick insects, some ants, bees and parasitic wasps), and vertebrates (e.g. some reptiles, amphibians,rarely birds). In plants, apomixis may or may not involve parthenogenesis.
In some plants, vegetative parts such as root, stem, and leaf can be used to produce new plants. This type of reproduction is known as vegetative reproduction and can be done by natural as well as artificial methods.
Most plants reproduce naturally without the involvement of human beings. They do so with the help of stems, roots and leaves.
Tuberous roots of dahlia and asparagus can be set aside for multiplication in the next season.
Stems are the most common parts involved in vegetative propagation. vegetative propagation through stems is of the following types:
. Plants such as oxalis and grass have horizontal stems, growing parallel to the ground, almost touching it. New roots sprout from the nodes (slightly swollen areas occurring at regular intervals on a stem or branch). New shoots also grow upwards forming new plants at regular intervals.
. In plants such as mint and chrysanthemum, horizontal stems arise from the base of the erect shoot, grow horizontally in the soil, and then come out to form new aerial shoots. These shoots become independent plants when stems break away from the parent plant.
. Some plants have arched stems which cross over small obstacles and develop small pantlets at their nodes, e.g., vallisneria and wild strawberry.
. Some plants have stems which grow underground. They are mostly swollen because they have food stored in them. This food is used to grow new plants.
Leaves of a number of plants, such as bryophyllum, develop small buds, called adventitious buds, on their margin. These buds grow into new plants when the leaf falls from the parent plant.
Plants can also be produced vegetatively by artificial means. these methods include cutting, grafting and layering.
It involves cutting off part of stem, leaf, or root and placing it in moist soil. After some time, these stems develop roots at the base and grow into a new plant.This method is generally used for multiplying sugarcane, rose, bougainvillea and hibiscus.
This is a very common method used in ornamental and fruit plants to develop new varieties, called hybrid varieties. It involves the following steps:
. A bud, or a cutting that has several buds called scion, of one plant is placed over the cut stem with roots of another plant called the stock.
.The scion and the stock are then firmly tied together.
. The stock supplies water and minerals to the scion. In due course, new cells develop in the area where they are joined and a new variety of plnt develops. This is common in plants such as rose, mango, guava, and many other fruit plants.
This is a method most commonly used in grapes, jasmine and bougainvillea.
.In this process, a young branch is lowered down and bent towards the ground and covered by moist soil forming a layer.
.After some time, roots arise from the branch and grow downwards.
.The branch can then be cut off from the parent plant and allowed to grow into a new plant.
ADVANTAGES OF VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION
The advantages of vegetative reproduction are:
.It is faster and more certain way of reproduction. Sometimes the seed may not germinate due to unfavorable conditions. But in this case, a new plant directly grows from a part of the parent plant.
.New plants resemble the parent plant exactly. Thus, it helps in conserving characteristic features of the parent plant.
.Plants that do not flower or seeds can reproduce by this method.