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National Unity and Integration
Transcript of National Unity and Integration
Prepared By :
Dennis Ang Lik Yang (051404405)
Phu Joon Meng (051404406)
Phang Shin Fung (051404407)
Ng Ji Chien (051404409)
· Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories.
· Important for the Malaysian government to develop a nation which must be integrated, harmonious and democratic.
· National unity is important for national stability. Stability in turn ensures the smooth implementation of socio-economic development programmes.
· National integration means national unity, it defined as creation of national
· National unity is a process to unite various groups that have different social and cultural background into one physical entity.
· According to S. P. Huntington- “National integration is a phenomenon as much as national disintegration”.
A. Basic Concepts Of National Unity And Integration
· National unity is targets of government policies in task to promote the greater integration amongst different race, different background of country’s committees.
· Concept of integration is a process of uniting groups with different backgrounds into one entity bound by common norms, values and interests.
· Process to unite various forms of differences between different background, religion and cultural into one common
· Concept of unity is a process of uniting the members of a society and the country as a whole through national ideologies so that the members of the society can build up an identity, common values and a sense of belonging.
· The government and prime minister have set three basics concepts of unity and integration which are assimilation, amalgamation and pluralism.
· Assimilation is a process by which individuals from one cultural group that will merge into the second cultural group.
· Assimilation process dividing into different group which is cultural assimilation, language assimilation and social assimilation.
· Assimilation may be distinguished from accommodation, acculturation and amalgamation.
· Concept of assimilation is about the entry into a dominant society through friendship and close connection.
· Amalgamation is a process that happens when culture or race mixes to form types of new culture and race.
· Important way of make sure the process of amalgamation takes place is through inter-marriage between ethnic groups or races.
· Amalgamation theory states that all ethnic groups should combine their traditions values and characteristics with one another to create a new group.
· Problem with this theory is that, notion of all cultures “melting” together was too much along the lines of assimilation.
· For all good intentions, the amalgamation theory was just too unrealistic to have any affect whatsoever on the American culture.
· Pluralism exists when groups maintain their individual identities. In a pluralistic society, groups remain separate, and their cultural and social differences persist over time.
· Cultural pluralism exists when groups
· While structural pluralism, cultural differences are minimal, but groups occupy different locations in the social structure.
· Pluralism is not diversity alone, but the
· Pluralism is also not just the tolerance, but the active seeking of understanding across lines of difference.
· Pluralism is not relativism, but the encounter of commitments.
B. Challenges To National Unity And Integration Within The Malaysian Context
· Concept of plural society depicts the existence of economic, social, cultural and residential differences among the population.
· Three important factors affect national integration negatively, which are prejudice, communalism and ethnocentrism.
· Prejudice is a pre-judgment action. This is the attitude towards other groups based on common generalizations, on evidences that are not concrete.
· Prejudice is prejudgment, or forming an opinion before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case.
· Prejudice refer to unfounded beliefs and may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence".
· The problem with prejudice in the country is, it usually takes the form of " bad expectations " of other races.
· This problem continues to exist because even though new positive information comes up concerning the other groups the existing prejudice persists.
· Although the word is generally used for negative pre-judgements, it can also apply to favourable pre-judgement.
· Communalism refers to the attitude of favouring one’s own ethnic group.
· In Malaysia, this phenomenon is quite obvious in economic, political, social and cultural spheres whereby an ethnic group shows favouritism towards those from within the group.
· Such communal behaviour can lead to tension in relationship and social gaps between groups of different ethnic origin.
· In social sphere, the presence of communalism would mean that the different communities are very conscious of the differences between them.
· Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.
· These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity.
· Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation.
· Ethnocentrism is evident in international
C. Major Policy Initiatives Of Dato' Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak In Overcoming The Challenges
· Most important of task of Malaysian government was to integrate the nation.
· Three important steps as government efforts in handling the problem of weakness in unity which are through political efforts, economic effort, social and cultural effort.
· Political Efforts
· First, the Constitution contains a number of clauses oriented towards racial equality such as allocations that provide protection to certain communities.
· Secondly, the acts passed by Parliament safeguard understanding among the races.
· Among them is Seditions Act or Incitement Act 1948 aimed at preventing an individual from raising sensitive issues in public.
· Thirdly, the Internal Security Act (ISA) aimed at protecting the country's interests and internal security.
· Fourthly, the Alliance , the Barisan Nasional today which unites parties into one bigger multi-racial organization, even though many political parties, each still voices the wishes of its own race.
· Economic Efforts
· Economic problems constitute a serious obstacle to creating unity.
· Five-year plans and government development policies aimed at having economic equity among races and to reduce identification of race by economic activity taken to develop the economy.
· New economic policy (NEP) taken to reduce economic disparity among the ethnic group.
· Different economic measures were taken by making a economic commission under the proposal of that commission to
· Development agencies, especially land development, like FELDA and state agencies like KEJORA play a role in developing rural areas with objective of uplifting the society's economic and social standing.
· Social and Cultural Efforts
· Government implemented the social and cultural approach by encouraging the sharing of values among races.
· Introduction of National Cultural Policy, the Malaysian government introduced a national cultural policy (NCP) in 1971 to
· Agencies and organizations were set up and National Unity Department was even set up in the Ministry of National Unity and Social Development to solve problem of Malay culture incorporate of elements from other cultures in Malaysia.
· Efforts that have been made such as bringing communities closer together geographically and making communities more uniform in certain aspects were able to bring about cognitive nearness, and sharing the same interest.
· Malaysia is a multi-ethnic or multi-cultural and pluralist society, importance of creating and maintaining unity and integration cannot be compromised.
· National unity and integration is vital for Malaysian if they want to live in peace and harmony.
· From the aspect of politic, economy, social, education and culture have been taken by the government to eliminate the prejudice, communalism and ethnocentrism.
· Citizens must play their roles also by supporting the efforts of the government.
· Those efforts are founded upon the sharing of power, democracy in the government, sound economic growth, curriculum and co-curriculum and cultural tolerance.
· External unity can be brought about