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Mayan Civilization

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by

Priya Ray

on 12 June 2014

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Transcript of Mayan Civilization

The Mayan Civilization
(600 BCE - 1500 CE)

modern - day Mexico and Central American region: Guatemala, Honduras, Belize and El Salvador.
Geography
Timeline
Southern lands
fertile soils
Central territory
lowland region with rivers & dense rainforests
Northern province
Historical
Overview
Divided into 3 periods:
Pre - classic period (600 BCE - 300 CE)
Classic period (300 CE - 925 CE)
Post - classic period
( 925 CE - 1250 CE)
Social Structure
King
Nobles
Priests
Commoners
Slaves
King -
halach uinic
most important
Nobles -
almehenob
controlled gov't, warfare, commerce
Priests -
ahkinob
Commoners -
ah chembal
uinicob
artists, artisans, traders and minor officials
Slaves -
ppentacob
Law & Justice
Government
Religion
Gods and Goddesses:
Religious Beliefs:
Death:
divided into 3 regions:
moderate climate
abundant wildlife
natural resources
mountainous highlands
northern Guatemala, western Honduras and Belize.
Mexican states:
Campeche
Quintana Roo
Yucatan
driest region
pre - classic
classic
post - classic
religious figure
hereditary positions
primogeniture
own hierarchy
- high priest (
ab kin
)
- local priests
- assistant priests
studied heavens
marriages & burials
ran schools
mostly farmers:
- built city - states
prisoners of war & children
as punishment of crime
grinding corn to construction
carried trade goods
born into slavery
Family
traditional baby ceremony
got 4 names
slashed cheek/forehead = disgrace
dealt by batab
marriage based on ancestry and astrology
theocracy
halach uinic - ruler of city-state
towns & villages - chief batab
Agriculture
maize most important crop
burned trees for milpas
Painting
inside and outside walls
polytheistic
Hanabku - Supreme Mayan God
Bonampak, Mexico most preserved
Pottery
men made ritual/religious
women made domestic
chewing gum
priests - high regard
festivals for diff. gods
Trade
Architecture
1 geographic zone
long distance
3 important routes
fasting, purification rituals, sacrifices
Southern Route
heaven - 13 layers
Central Route
hell - 9 layers
Northern Route
burials only for upper class
major impact on development
aquire power, wealth & prestige
aquire luxuries
bartering
cocoa beans = currency
localized = backs of slaves
long distance = canoes
1st buildings - 100 BCE
stone temples & pyramids
large cities - Kaminalijuyu & Abaj Takalik
economy - trade & agriculture
Golden Age (culture & popn.)
carved stelae time records
trade routes
Chichen Itza (Yucatan)
political alliances formed betw. city - states
Period of Decline
(1250 CE - 1500 CE)
absence of new construction
Mexican invasion
Mayapan domination over Yucatan
internal revolts
Spanish conquest
tie Mayan area together
Trade contd.
well developed
made with wood, stone, clay bricks
Key Points
used corbal arches
Mesoamerican civ.
3 periods : pre-classic, classic, post-classic
- lacked strength
- palaces = maze of tiny narrow rooms
Innovations:
El Castillo: Chichen Itza
social structure
post-classic temple pyramid
government - theocracy
temple for God Kukulcan
religion - polytheistic
phenomenon on spring/autumn equinox
light/shadow serpent
2 systems
Legacy
Mathematics
heads of gods with numerals
bar and dot notation
- units of 20
- bar = 5
- dot = 1
- shell = 0
used concept of 0
Writing
hieroglyphic symbols (ideographic)
glyphs = sqaures with round corners
- one word
- top-bottom & left-right
- in codices

3 codices survived
The Dresden Codex
Astronomy & Calander
periods of time = burdens carried by gods
year length - 365.2420
marriage - astrology
agriculture - corn
architecture - corbel arch
math - bar and dot notation
writing - hieroglyphics in codices
Key Points contd.
current year length - 365.2422
gnomon determined solstices
astronomy & calendar - most accurate to current
The Madrid Codex
The Paris Codex
used 3 calendars
Tzolkin Calendar
Haab Calendar
Long Count Calendar
Astronomy & Calendar Contd.
paintings - murals/frecoes
trade - development of power/culture
Full transcript