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Cultural norms & Diversity
Transcript of Cultural norms & Diversity
norms, mores and folkways
diversity & similarity "First thing" write
My current grade -------------
It is that grade because ----------
I will do -------to keep or improve my grade Norms & Values
Two essential components of culture are norms and values. There are several types of norms—folkways, mores, and laws. Sanctions are used to encourage conformity to norms. Values, the broadest cultural ideas, form the basis for norms. Norms: The Rules We Live By
Norms are rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Norms are so engrained in humans that they guide behavior without awareness. There are three types of norms:
-Folkways—rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling and behaving but lack moral overtones.
-Mores—norms of great moral significance.
-Taboo—a norm so strong that its violation demands punishment by the group.
Laws are norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials. Enforcing the Rules
Sanctions are rewards and punishments used to encourage conformity to norms, either formally or informally.
Formal sanctions are sanctions that may be applied, for positive or negative reasons, only by officially designated persons, such as judges and teachers.
Informal sanctions can be applied by most members of a group, also for positive or negative reasons. Values—The Basis for Norms
Values are broad ideas about what most people in a society consider to be desirable.
Different groups in the same society can have different norms based on the same value.
Values have a tremendous influence on human social behavior because they form the basis for norms. Basic Values in the United States
According to sociologist Robin Williams (1970), some of the important values that guide the values of most people in the United States are as follows:
-Achievement and success
-Activity and work
-Efficiency and practicality
Although many of these values have remained the same over the years, some have changed. Culture Diversity and Similarity
Cultures change according to three major processes. Cultures contain groups within them called subcultures and countercultures that differ in important ways from the main culture. People tend to make judgments based on the values of their own cultures. While apparently very different on the surface, all cultures have common traits or elements that sociologists call cultural universals Cultural Change
Culture changes for three reasons
-Discovery—the process of finding something that already exists.
-Invention—the creation of something new.
-Diffusion—the borrowing of aspects of culture from other cultures. Cultural Diversity
Cultural diversity exists in all societies.
Social categories are groups that share a social characteristic such as age, gender, or religion.
Subculture is part of the dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects.
Counterculture is a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture Ethnocentrism
-Ethnocentrism is the practice of judging others in terms of one’s own cultural standards
-People feel good about themselves and others.
Stability is promoted.
Inflexibility Cultural Universals
Cultural universals are traits that exist in all cultures, such as sports, cooking, and education.
Cultural particulars are the ways that each culture expresses the universals.
Cultural universals exist for three main reasons:
The biological similarity shared by all human beings.
The physical environment affecting all human beings.
Many countries face the same social problems. Taboo or
Beauty? Is Diversity Important to society? Socratic Seminars
1. Speak so that all can hear you.
2. Listen closely.
3. Speak without raising hands.
4. Refer to the text.
5. Talk to each other, not just to
6. Ask for clarification. Don’t stay
7. Invite and allow others to
8. Consider all viewpoints and ideas.
9. Know that you are responsible
for the quality of the seminar. Topic
“Through genetic research and future advancements in cloning technology is it the way of the future to adjust and define characteristics of human being to fit the idea of the ideal human.”