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Long Term Effects of Exercise

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Harry Ferguson

on 12 February 2015

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Transcript of Long Term Effects of Exercise

Long Term Effects of Exercise
Explaining the Long Term effects of exercise on the Muscular System, the Respiratory System, the Cardiovascular System and the Energy Systems
Increased Tendon Strength
Tendons are connectives tissues, made from collagen, which are designed to connect the muscle to the bone. Continous contraction of tendons increases their strength as it makes them more active and requires them to replace their cells with stronger ones. This can be achieved by any form of resistance training, but is best acheived through weight training as this is when you can apply the most strain to the tendons. This can aid an athletics performance as it allows for an increased Range of Motion (ROM) and therefore is extremely helpful for someone like a triple jumper who will over extend at their ankles and knee's to create the most power for their jump, meaning increased Tendon strength allows them to extend further without causing damage.
Increased Number of Mitochondria, Storage of Fat, Glycogen and Myoglobin
Mitochondria appear in every cell in the human body, with their main function being to provide energy for the body to use. Glycogen and fat are stored in the muscles and are broken down over longer periods of time as an energy source. Finally, Myoglobin is used to transport Oxygen through the body as a form of Haemoglobin which is found in the cells of muscles. All of these aspects of the body are increased by Continous Training, as they are used more and therefore the body responds by creating more of them to increase the length of time the body can work for. This is incredibly helpful for Rugby players, as they will be continously moving at different intensities, and as all of these aspects help increase the ATP System in the body, it provides them with more energy to
Increased Muscular Strength
This will be proportional to the increase of hypertrophy, as the bigger the muscle, the stronger it will be. Muscular Strength is defined as the amount of force the body/muscles can apply to a resistance applied. Muscular Strength will be trained for in the same way as Hypertrophy. with the person partaking in weightbearing exercise to cause microtears in the muscle fibres. The difference needed for Strength is that the prinicple of Overload, which is increasing the intesity frequently, must be used from the SPORTM Prinicples in order for the body to get stronger. This will be used by Powerlifters massively, as they're aim is to be able to lift the most amount of weight for a single repition, which means Overload must be used in order to progress as a lifter.
Increased Tolerance to Lactic Acid
Lactic Acid is a waste product of respiration in the muscles as they contract. Over an extended period of time the muscles will build up their tolerance of Lactic Acid because the training causes an increase in Capillaries, which means the muscles have a greater supply of Oxygen from the blood which is what breaks down the Lactic Acid. The tolerance will be improved best through Continous training as the Lactic Acid levels will build up over time and frequwntly training like this will allow the body to get used to it and increase its tolerance. This would be especially useful for Marathon runner as they will be running for an extended period of time, in which the Lactic Acid in their legs will build up and they will need a higher tolerance to overcome this.
One effect of Long Term Exercise is an increase Muscular Hypertrophy, which means they have increased in size. This happens as the muscles get micro-tears and then repair themselves, making the muscles bigger and stronger as it happens. This will be visibly noticeable by the participant as their muscles will obviously increase in size and they will be able to see this. A sporting example of this would be a rugby player using Resistance training with weights, to create the micro tears in the muscles in order to increase his muscle mass to be more effective on the pitch. This would effect his performance as the increased muscle mass would increase his body weight, meaning that he would be able to break more tackles and would be harder to move in a contact situation, however, it could also have a negative effect on their performance as if he solely trained for hypertrophy and gained too much weight, it may effect his Cardiovascular Endurance and his Speed.
Increase in Bone Calcium Stores
Our Bone Mineral Stores are effected by Long Term training as they increase in order to supply the body with the minerals needed and this also increases the strength of the bone. As a result of the mineral stores being increased, the amount of Collagen in the bones increases, which is what tendons are mainly made out of. Also, an increase in Calcium stores will help prevent Osteoporosis occuring in the bones. This can be achieved mainly by weight bearing or resistance focused exercise and can be massively useful to American Football players as it will decrease the chances of them breaking a bone during contact.
Increased Thickness of Hyaline Cartilage
Hylanine Cartilage is what is found on the surface of the bones in the body. It is supposed to act as layer to absorb impacts, the thicker the layer, the better it will absorb the shock. The most efficient way of increasing the thickness of Hyaline is through continous training as the impact will cause the body to adapt and increase the thickness. Long Jumpers will benefit hugely from an increased thickness in their Hyaline Cartilage as they will have a lot of impacts from the high intesity spring and jump.
Increased Production of Synovial Fluid
Synovial fluid is Secreted from joints whenever there is movement, as it acts as a lubricant for the joint, to allow the movemenet to occur more smoothly. Synovial Fluid production can be increased by any form of exercise in which a movement is repeated, as the body will realise that this movement will require more Synovial fluid for the it to occur smoothly. This will massivrely benefit Gymnasts, as they will have larger Ranges of Motion as a result of the joint have a better lubrication and will move more smoothly, making it easier for them to get into some of the positions needed.
Increased Aerobic & Anaerobic Enzymes
Long Term exercises causes changes in the cells of the body, which allows muscles to produce more Adenosine Triphosphate. Aerobic enzymes can be changed by processes such as the increased number of Mitochondria whereas the Anaerobic enzymes can adapt as they increase in number in order to break down Glucose. Aerobic enzymes can be increased by Continous training for long periods of time whereas the Anaerobic enzymes can be increased by doing intense Anaerobic exercise such as sprints. Increasing the aerobic enzymes would be incredibly useful for rowers, as they need to respire aerobically very quickly. Increasing the anaerobic enzymes would be incredibly useful for Short Distance sprinters as they need to be able to work for distances up to 300m anaerobically.
Increased use of Fats as an Energy Source
Fat is used as a source of energy when partaking in low intensity exercise like Jogging. The use of fat makes up around 25% of aerobic energy, with this level increasing over long periods of time as the amount of glycogen in the body drops. Advanced athletes will be more likely to use their fat stores for energy during continous training, as this will make them more likely to use it over long stints of time. As a result of using fat as an energy source, the athletes body fat % will drop over time, making this useful for long distance runners who will need a lower body weight in order to be able to run for longer with less fatigue.
Cardiac Hypertrophy
Over a long period of time the walls of the Heart will get bigger as the body adapts to the icnreased need for blood, making the heart more efficient. This increase in size is most noticeable in the Left Ventricle, as this is where the blood is pumped out of the body and to the rest of the body. As a result of the Heart getting bigger, more blood can be pumped from the Left Ventricle to the rest of the body, which means the Resting Heart Rate of an athlete will decrease, as it takes less beats to pump the same amount of blood. The size of the Heart can increased by any form of Aerobic exercise, as this will increase the amount of oxygen needed by the heart which will in turn cause it to work more
Increased Stroke Volume
Stroke volume is the amount of Blood pumped from the Left Ventricle in one beat. The Stroke Volume of an athlete will be increased as the heart will be able to expel more blood from the Left Ventricle as it increases in size, which means it also contributes to the decrease in Heart Rate. This can be increased by endurance/continous training where Oxygen is needed consistently throughout the training period. As a result of the training the body will adapt to make the supply of oxygen more efficient and therefore the Strke Volume increases. This greatly benefits Rowers, as it means that their heart is supplying more oxygen with every beat and they can continue to work at a higher intensity with less fatigue.
Muscular System Changes
Skeletal System Changes
Cardiovascular Changes
Respiratory System Changes
Energy System Changes
Decreased Resting Heart Rate
Bradycardia is the medical term for a decreased Heart Rate. This happens as a result of the Cardiac Hypertrophy and Increased Stroke Volume, which allows more blood to be pumped around the body with less beats, meaning that a athletes Heart Rate is slower than the Heart Rate of a normal person. This will massively benefit Cyclists as it means that they can work at higher intensity for longer periods of time as it takes less beats of the heart to get the blood flowing quicker.
Evidence for P3
Increased Cardiac Output
Cardiac Output is the total amount of blood leaving the Left Ventricle per minute and is measured by the Heart Rate x Stroke Volume, therefore, as a result of the Stroke Volume increasing, the Cardiac Output will also increase. This can be achieved by aerobic training such as continous training as this will need a high level of respiration and will therefore result in more blood leaving the heart. This will be massively useful for endurance activities
Increased Vital Capacity
Increased Minute Ventilation
Increased Strength of Respiratory Muscles
Increased Oxygen Diffusion Rate
Increased Blood Volume (Hypervolemia)
Decreased Blood Pressure
Decreased Recovery Time
Increased Aerobic Fitness
Capillarisation is an increase in the number of Capillaries in the Muscles. As a result of this, more oxygen can be diffused into the muscles for respiration when exercising, meaning that Lactic Acid can be broken down at an increased rate. Capillarisation will be most prominent during Continous training, as this involves a steady supply of oxygen to the working muscles for respiration. Therefore, this will massively benefit cyclists as they will be working at a high intensity with high levels of oxygen being needed to breakdown the Lactic Acid forming in their muscles over time, therefore an increased number of Capillaries would increase the amount of oxygen breaking down the Lactic Acid.
Blood Volume is increased as a result of aerobic exercise releasing Anti-diuretic hormone and Aldosterone as these hormones help the Kidneys retain water and as a result of the increased water levels, the amount of Plasma in the blood also increases as this is mainly made of water. Therefore, the total blood volume will increase as a result of increased Blood Plasma levels. This will help performance as it means that Red Blood Cells will be taken around the body and will supply the body with more oxygen. This is why athletes may be tempted to Blood dope as it dramatically increases the amount of RBC's they have in their system, increasing their rate of respiration in the muscles. This would be greatly useful for cyclists as they need to respire quickly in order to supply the muscles with enough oxygen whilst removing the Carbon Dioxide as quickly as possible.
Blood pressure is the amount of pressure being exerted on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in two numbers, the Systolic and the Diastolic, which are read as a fraction, with the Systolic over the Diastolic. Blood Pressure decreases as a result of more blood being pumped around the body with less beats, as the systolic number is the pressure felt in the arteries when the heart beats and the Diastolic is the pressure inbetween beats. A lower blood pressure is beneficial to any form of athlete as it decreases their chances of Heart related problems during exercise at a high intensity, as their blood pressure won't rise as high as it would if they had a high resting blood pressure.
Recovery Time is the amount of time it takes for a person to recover completely from a bout of exercise. As a result of the heart becoming more efficient during the other processes that happened, to the Cardiovascular System, it would take less time to completely replenish the bodies oxygen debt and break down the Lactic Acid that has formed during exercise. Therefore, the more exercise sessions you do, the less time it should take you to recover from it, provided that it is at the same sort of intensity. This would greatly benefit a Ultra Triathlon athlete, as they would need to recover over night in order to compete in the next part of the Ultra.
Aerobic Fitness is how efficiently the body can use the oxygen provided by respiration to fulfil the needs of the exercise. An athletes Aerobic Fitness can be increased by any form of exercise which will strengthen the Heart and Lungs to enable the body to distribute the oxygen quciker. Therefore any form of Aerobic exercise will help increase this. This would greatly benefit Marathon Runners as it would enable them to run at a higher intensity for extended periods of time without experiencing fatigue.
Increased Stretch in Ligaments
The Ligaments will be stretched over time as a result of the muscles and bones producing certain movements which will challenge a joints Range of Motion. Therefore the ligaments will stretch in order to accomodate the movements the participant is performing. This can be increased mainly by Weight training as to fully activate the muscles a full Range of Movement is required and therefore the Ligaments will adapt to accomodate the movements. This would be especially useful for a Gymnast, as they often have to put their bodies through strange movements, often in sequence and therefore would need to be able to move their limbs into these positions, for example when they do a "Bridge".
Vital Capacity is the total amount of air that a person can exhale after they have inhaled as much as possible. It can be calculated by adding up a persons Inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. This can be increased as a result of aerobic exercise, as the use of the intercostal muscles will cause them to increase in size and expand the chest cavity, meaning the lungs will be able to inhale and exhale more air and their tidal Volume will also increase causing an increase in Vital Capacity. This would be extremely useful for Rowers, who will greatly benefit from an increase in the amount of oxygen diffused into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood at an increased rate. Therefore, they would work more efficiently than before.
Minute Ventilation is the total volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one Minute. Therefore, as a result of aspects such as Tidal Volume and Vital Capacity increasing, Minute Ventilation will also increase. This means that more oxygen is entering the body and more Carbon Dioxide is leaving the body every minute, making respiration more efficient. This can be increased by Continous Training as this will cause the muscles of the Respiratory system, such as the intercostal muscles, to work at a higher intensity for an extended period of time. This would greatly benefit a Swimmer, as they would be able to take breaths less frequently whilst getting more oxygen from each breath, meaning they can swim further without having to breath.
The Respiratory Muscles are comprised of the Diaphragm and the Intercostal Muscles, which work in the same way that normal muscles do, meaning that they will become stronger after extended periods of hard work in order to adapt and meet the demands of their environment. Therefore, Endurance Training will help improve the strength of Respiratory muscles as they will have to work for extended periods of time meaning they will try and adapt so it is easier next time. This would greatly benefit a long distance runner, as the increased strength of respiratory muscles would allow them to breathe more efficiently whilst running in the aerobic level.
Oxygen Diffusion Rate is the speed at which oxygen is diffused from the blood lungs into the blood stream and then from the Blood Stream to the muscles. This is increased as a result of Capillirasation and the increased blood volume. Capillirisation provides a larger surface area for the oxygen to be diffused through into the working muscles and the increased blood colume means there is more Haemoglobin travelling around the body carrying oxygen. This would greatly benefit a long distance Cyclist as they will need the oxygen extremely quickly to break down the Lactic Acid forming in their working muscles.
Evidence for P3 & M2
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Evidence for P3, P4 & M2
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