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Pure Carbon, Diamond and Graphite
Transcript of Pure Carbon, Diamond and Graphite
The mineral graphite is an allotrope of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 and its main use is in pencils, where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Unlike diamond, graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions.
The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, diamond is highly transparent, while graphite is opaque and black.
Diamond is the hardest naturally-occurring material known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper.
Diamond has a very low electrical conductivity, while graphite is a very good conductor.
Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotube and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials.
There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.
The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form.
All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen
What is Carbon ?
- Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
- Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity
- Carbon forms more compounds than any other element, with almost ten million pure organic compounds described to date, which in turn are a tiny fraction of such compounds that are theoretically possible under standard conditions
Diamond "unbreakable"is a metastable allotrope of carbon. Diamond is less stable than graphite. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells.