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MODULE II: CRAFTING THE CURRICULUM

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Liberato Tampus Jr.

on 5 May 2015

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Transcript of MODULE II: CRAFTING THE CURRICULUM

MODULE II: CRAFTING THE CURRICULUM
Lesson 1-2

LESSON 1: CURRICULUM DESIGN MODELS
As a teacher, one has to be a
curriculum designer
,
curriculum implementor
and a
curriculum evaluator.

Objectives
› This lesson will present the different design models curriculum and;

› This will guide to discover that curricula are organized.
Curriculum
The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in the personal social competence.
( Daniel Tanner, 1980)
SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN MODEL
This model focuses on the content of the curriculum.

The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject.

SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN MODEL
* Subject design
* Discipline design
* Correlation design
* Broad field design/
interdisciplinary
Subject design
- the oldest and the most familiar design
-easy to deliver
-learning is so compartmentatized
Discipline design
-related to subject design
-focuses on academic discipline
-often used in college
Correlation design
-this comes from the core, correlated curriculum design that links separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation.

Broad field design/interdisciplinary
- made to prevent the compartmentalization of subject and integrate the contents that are related to each other
- sometimes called
holistic

curriculum
Learner-Centered Design
* Child-centered design
* Experience-centered design
* Humanistic design
Child-centered design
› the curriculum design is anchored on the needs and interests of the child.

› the learner is not considered as a passive individual but as one who engages with his/her environment.


Experienced-centered design
› experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum, thus the school environment is left open and free.
Humanistic design
› the development of self is the ultimate objective of learning.

› it stresses the whole person and integration of thinking, feeling and doing.
Presented by: Liberato E. Tampus, Jr., RRT
Reference: Bilbao, Purita,. et. al, (2008) Curriculum Development, LORIMAR Publishing Company
2.
Problem-Centered Design
Draws on social problems, needs, interest and abilities of the learners.

Two examples of problem-centered design curriculum:
- Life-situations design
- Core design
a. Life-situations design
› it uses the past and present experiences of the of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living.

› the pressing immediate problem of the society and the students’ existing concerns are utilized.

b. Core design
› it centers on the general education and the problem are based on the common human activities.

› the central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, concerned of the learners.
3.
LEARNER-CENTEREDDESIGN MODEL
centered on certain aspects of the learner’s themselves.

the learner is the center of the educative process.
(John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel)
(Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers)
PROBLEM-CENTEREDDESIGN MODEL
draws on social problem, needs, interests and abilities of the learners.

content cuts across the subject boundaries and must be based on the needs, concerns and abilities of the students .
1.
Lesson 2: Dimensions and Principles of Curriculum Design
Crafting a curriculum follows some designs. Curriculum designers are
objectives
,
contents
,
activities
and
evaluation
.
Dimensions of the curriculum design
Scope
Sequence
Continuity
Integration
Articulation
Balance
Sequence
› contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner, where the basis can either be logic of the subject or on the developmental patterns of growth of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.
Dimensions of the curriculum design
Scope
› defines as all the content, topics, learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan.
Dimensions of the curriculum design
› provides boundaries in curriculum as it applies to the different educational levels.

› it should include time, diversity and maturity of the learners, complexity of content, and level of education.
Scope
Four principles of Sequence
(Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)
1. Simple to Complex learning
› content and experiences are organized from simple to complex, from concrete to abstract, form easy to difficult.

2. Prerequisite learning
› it means that there are fundamental things to be learned ahead.
Four principles of Sequence
(Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)
3. Whole to part learning
› the meaning can very well be understood if everything will be taken as a whole.

4. Chronological learning
› the order of events is made as a basis of sequencing the content and the experiences. This can be arranged from the most recent to the distant past or vice versa.
Major principles for organizing content
(Posner and Rudnitsky 1957)
1. World-related sequence
a. Space
- spatial relation will be the basis for the sequence.
b. Time
- the content is based from the earliest to the more recent.
c. Physical attributes
- this principles refers to the physical characteristics of the phenomena.
2. Concept-related sequence
a. Class relation
- refers to the group or set of things that share common practices. Teaching the characteristics of the class ahead of the member of the class.

b. Proportional relations
- a statement that asserts something. Sequence are arranged so that the evidence presented ahead before proposition.
3. Inquiry-related sequence
- this is based on the scientific method of inquiry. Based on the process of generating, discovering and verifying knowledge, content and experiences are sequence logically and methodically.
4. Learning-related sequence
a. Empirical prerequisites
- sequence is primarily based on empirical study where the prerequisite is required before learning the next level.
b. Familiarity
- prior learning is important in sequence. What is familiar should be taking up first before the unfamiliar.
c. Difficulty
- easy content is taken ahead than the difficult one.

d. Interest
- contents and experiences that stimulate interest are those that are novel. These can arouse curiosity and interest of learners.
Continuity
- this process enables learners strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills. Gerome Bruner called this “
spiral curriculum
” where the content is organized according to the interrelationship between the structure of the basis ideas of a major discipline.
Dimensions of the curriculum design
Integration
“ Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emerging themes.”
- organization is drawn from the world themes from real life concerns.
Dimensions of the curriculum design
Articulation
● Vertical Articulation
- the contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that the content in the lower level is connected to the next level.
● Horizontal Articulation
- happens when the association is among or between elements that happen at the same time.
Dimensions of the curriculum design
Balance
- equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to establish balance is needed in curriculum design.
Dimensions of the curriculum design
Curriculum Development Models
These are based on a body of theory about teaching and learning.

These are targeted to needs & characteristics of a particular group of learners.

Outline approaches, methods, & procedures for implementation.
Curriculum Development Models
Deductive Models:

1. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s
2. Tyler’s

Inductive Model:

3. Taba’s model
Models of Curriculum Development
The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model
Curriculum: “a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for persons to be educated.”
Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished.
Models of Curriculum Development
The Tyler Model
The best or one of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to planning phases is Ralph W. Tyler’s in his classic little book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.
The Tyler Model of Curriculum Design
The nature and structure of knowledge
The needs of the society
The needs of the learner
Tyler:
Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum
What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
How can we determine whether and to what extent these purposes are being attained?
Models of Curriculum Development
The Taba Model (Inductive Curriculum)
Taba took what is known as a grass-roots approach to curriculum development. She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design.
The Taba Model
Five-Step Sequence.
1. Producing pilot units - linking theory and practice
a.) Diagnosis of Needs
b.) Formulation of Objectives
c.) Selection of Content
d.) Organization of Content
e.) Selection of Learning Experiences
f.) Organization of Learning Activities
g.) Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it
h.) Checking for Balance and Sequence
The Taba Model
Five-Step Sequence (cont.)
2. Testing Experimental Units
3. Revising and consolidating
4. Developing a Framework
5. Installing and disseminating new units.
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