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DRILL BITS

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AM Olivares

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of DRILL BITS


Team #2

Aguirre Aguilar Julio César
Carmona Vázquez Adrián Antonio
González Ramírez Oswaldo Antonio
Hernández Medina Zabdiel
Olivares Guadarrama Andrés Miztli
Sánchez Méndez José Carlos

Roller cone bits, nozzle flow
TCI Bit (Hole Products)
Tungsten Carbide Insert (TCI) or Insert bits generally have tungsten carbide inserts (teeth) that are pressed into the bit cones. The inserts have several shapes such as long-extension shapes, round shaped inserts, etc.

Teeth of the bits are different depending on the formation as follows:

Soft formation:
Long-extension, chisel shape inserts

Hard formation:
Short-extension, rounded inserts
Tungsten Carbide Insert
IADC RC Classification
IADC code consists of four characters, indicating bit design and formation type being drilled. First three characters are numerical, fourth one, literal. The numerical code characters sequence is determined as:"
series-type-bearing/gauge
". Fourth literal code character defines "
additional features
".
IADC Classification for Roller Cone Bits
DRILL BITS
Milled Tooth
MT Bit (Hejian Huanyu Petroleum Machinery Co.)
Milled-tooth bits have steel tooth cutters, which are fabricated as parts of the bit cone. The bits cut or gouge formations out when they are being rotated. The teeth vary in size and shape, depending on the formation. Teeth of the bits are different depending on formations as follows:

Soft formation:
The teeth should be long, slender and widely spaced.

Hard formation:
The teeth should be short and closely spaced.
Seal and bearing components
Bearing System
Single indent, basalt
How Does a Drill Bit Work?
Different sizes of PDC cutters
Cutters are made from a carbide substrate and diamond grit. High heat of around 2800 degrees and high pressure of approximately 1,000,000 psi forms the compact.

A cobalt alloy is also present and acts as a catalyst to the sintering process. The cobalt helps bond the carbide and diamond.
PDC Cutters
PDC Bit (Smith Bits)
A drilling tool that uses polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters to shear rock with a continuous scraping motion. These cutters are synthetic diamond disks about 1/8-in thick and about 1/2 to 1 in in diameter. PDC bits are effective at drilling shale formations, especially when used in combination with oil-base muds.
PDC (Polycrystalline Diamond Compact)
Drill Bit service (Volgaburmash)
The tool used to crush or cut rock. Everything on a drilling rig directly or indirectly assists the bit in crushing or cutting the rock.

The bit is on the bottom of the drillstring and must be changed when it becomes excessively dull or stops making progress. Most bits work by scraping or crushing the rock, or both, usually as part of a rotational motion.
What is a Drill Bit?
Number of teeth
Different Design for Each Application
Fixed Cutter Bits
Fixed cutter bits consist of bit bodies and cutting elements integrated with the bit bodies. The fixed cutter bits are designed to excavate holes by shearing formations rather than chipping or grinding formations, such as rolling cutter bits.

These bits do not have moving parts such as cones or bearings. The components of bits are composed of bit bodies fabricated from steel or tungsten carbide alloy and fixed blades integrated with abrasion-resistant cutters.
TSP Bit (Smith Bits)
TSP is named for this ultra high thermal stability. Better than PDC cutters, TSP Cutters are thermal stable up to 1200 ℃.

TSP diamond cutters are capable of reducing overall system costs by increasing rates of penetration and bit life in abrasive and hard rock applications.
TSP (Thermally Stable Polycrystalline)
PDC Bit components
Instituto Politécnico Nacional
Escuela Superior de Ingeniería y Arquitectura
Unidad Ticomán

5PM7
Drillstring assembly (Kalsi)
Currently there are several types of bits for well drilling, which differ either in their structure or their cutting bearing system. According to the above, the bits are classified into:
Drill Bits Classification
ROLLER
CONE
MILLED
TOOTH
CARBIDE
INSERT
SPECIAL
CORE
HEAD
SIDETRACK
HOLE OPENER
FIXED
CUTTER
PDC
TSP
NATURAL
DIAMOND
IMPREGNATED
DIAMOND
Elements of Roller Cone bits
Invented by Howard Hughes, the roller cone bit has conical cutters or cones that have spiked teeth around them.

As the drillstring is rotated, the bit cones roll along the bottom of the hole in a circle. As they roll, new teeth come in contact with the bottom of the hole, crushing the rock immediately below and around the bit tooth
Roller Cone Bits
HYBRID
Drilling mechanism
Type of bit
Scratching and scraping
Chiping and grinding
Shearing
Grooves
Grinding
Milled tooth
Carbide inserts
PDC/TSP
Natural diamond
Impregnated diamond
Indent and chiping
Shearing
As the cone rolls, a high-velocity fluid jet strikes the crushed rock chips to remove them from the bottom of the hole.

Thus, the process of chipping the rock and removing the small rock chips with the fluid jets is continuous.
Roller cone bearing systems are designed to be in satisfactory operating condition when the cutting structure of the bit is worn out. Modern goals for seal and bearing system life are 1 million or more revolutions of a bit without failure.
Roller cone leg sectioned
Bearing System Assembly
Seals prevent cuttings and drilling fluids from entering the bearing system and prevent lubricant from escaping the bearing system. Thrust washers are located on the end of leg journals and between the primary and secondary bearing surfaces to resist axial loading.

The lubrication system contains the lubricant that, throughout the life of the bearing system, provides lubrication to bearings and seals.
ND Bit (National Oilwell Varco)
Natural diamond bit diamonds are set in a pre-designed pattern that ensures sufficient overlap to prevent excessive wear to the matrix. Because of the method of manufacture, natural diamond bits have no cutting elements in the blade.

Natural diamond bits are most suitable when drilling in soft to medium hard formations. As a general rule, the softer the formation, the bigger the size of diamonds should be set in the bit.
Natural Diamond
ID Bit (Buritekh)
The objective of an Impregnated Bit is to provide a bit where the matrix erodes at a rate whereby when active diamonds become worn and blunt, these diamonds will be discarded enabling new fresh diamonds to be exposed to the substance being drilled.

The matrix is critical in a successful bit as this matrix must have the ability to retain the diamonds for just as long as they continue to provide an efficient cutting function.
Impregnated Diamond
PDC cutter composition
PDC Cutters Size
Hole opener tool and stabilizer
The special bits are used for operations such as:
expanding the diameter of the well hole, either since surface or from a certain depth, sidetracking or taking core from the interest formation.
Marking up and orientating the cores taked
Reamers:
These are stabilizers that have cutting elements embedded on their fins, and are used to maintain a gauged well-bore. They can be used to drill out doglegs and key-seats in hard formations. Due to the cutting ability of the reamer the bit does less work in maintaining well-bore gauge and more work drilling.

Undereamer:
This tool that is used to enlarge the well-bore, usually beginning at some point under the surface. It does this by utilizing expandable cutters that only deploy at the designated time or depth.
The under-reamer utilizes an increase in mud pressure or flow rate to deploy the expandable cutters.
Hole Openers
Bi-center bit (Burintekh)
IADC Classification for PDC Bits
IADC PDC Classification
Bicentric Reamer
Eccentric Reamer
Concentric Reamer
Top Bi-center bit (National Oilwell Varco)
Pilot Bit
Reamer
Concentric reamer (National Oilwell Varco)
Concentric reamer and pilot bit (OTS)
Eccentric reamer (National Oilwell Varco)
Eccentric reamer and pilot bit (Baker Hughes)
Underreamer
Underreamer operation
Underreamer (Baker Hughes)
Underreamer operation diagram
The sidetrack bit has cutting edges that allow the operator to turn the head of the drilling ram and drill at every angle.
The bit has a flatter form than the typical bits. The shorter form allow the drilling engineer to steer the sidetrack drill in the desired direction.
Sidetrack Bits
Diamond Impregned ST Bit (DB Bits)
ST Bit (National Oilwell Varco)
Leveraging the cutting superiority of PDCs in soft formations and the rock-crushing strength and stability of roller cones in hard or interbedded formations, the hybrid bit has the potential to maintain higher overall rate of penetration (ROP) for more footage than a roller cone or PDC could individually.
Hybrid Bits
Kymera Bit (Baker Hughes)
Core drilling are used frequently in petroleum exploration where the coring may be several thousand feet in length. The core samples are recovered and examined by geologists for mineral percentages and stratigraphic contact points. This gives exploration companies the information necessary to begin or abandon drilling operations in a particular area.
Core Heads
TSP Core Heads
Different TSP Core Heads
PDC Core Heads
Different PDC Core Heads
Impregnated Diamond Core Heads
Different ID Core Heads and profile types
Thank you for
your attention.

Cost per Meter
Bit Calculations
IADC dull grading categories
The IADC Dull Grading Protocol evaluates eight roller cone or seven PDC bit areas, provides a mechanism for systematically evaluating the reasons for removal of a bit from service, and establishes a uniform method for reporting.
IADC Dull Grading Classification
With many choices available today, selecting the proper bit for a particular application can become quite confusing. This process involves a few simple steps that can help you:
Drill Bit Selection
Simplifying the Process
IDENTIFY
Obtain geotechnical information. This part of the process is the most important. When done correctly, it will ensure proper tool selection
CLASSIFY
CHOOSE
Suggested Bit Types

Shear Type (PDC) Milled Tooth & TCI Roller Cone, Single Cone TCI

Milled Tooth Roller Cone

TCI Roller Cone with conical or round top inserts
OPTIMIZE
Operating parameters/subsequent selection
Rock type(s)
Range Rock Types

Dirt, Clay, Cobble, Talc, Shale, Siltstone, Unconsolidated Sandstone, Slate

Limestone, Dolomite, Sandstone, Coarsely Grained Granites

Finely Grained Granites, Trap Rock, Chert, Iron Formations, Quartzite
Rock category
Suggested bit type
Compressive Strength/Hardness

0 to 10,000 psi/Low

10,001 to 30,000/Mid

30,000 +/High
Compressive Strength/Hardness

0 to 10,000 psi/Low

10,001 to 30,000/Mid

30,000 +/High
Utilization and adjust subsequent selection if required.
Where:

C = Cost per meter ($/m)
B = Bit cost ($)
R = Rig cost($/hr)
Tv = Trip time (hr)
Tr = Drilling time (hr)
Tc = Connection time (hr)
M = Total length drilled (m)
IADC dull grading reviews four general bit wear categories:

Cutting structure (T)
Bearings and seals (B)
Gauge (G)
Remarks
Cutting Structure Wear Grading (T)
Bearing and Seal (B)
Estimation of bearing and seal wear in nonsealed and sealed bearing assemblies. Seal and bearing grading applies only to roller-cone bits. It is always marked “X” for PDC bits.
Gauge Grading (G)
The gauge category of the Dull Bit Grading System is used to report an undergauge condition for cutting elements intended to touch the wall of the hole bore. For diamond and PDC bits only, gauge is measured with an API-specified ring gauge.
Roller Cone and PDC Bit Remarks
The “remarks” category allows explanation of dull characteristics that do not correctly fit into other categories and is the category in which the reason a bit was removed from service is recorded.
Tooth height measurement
For dull grading purposes, cutting structures are subdivided into four subcategories: inner rows, outer rows, major dull characteristic of the cutting structure, and location on bit face where the major dull characteristic occurs.
Inner/outer body designation for PDC and impregnated bits
Cutter wear convention (zero is no wear)
Seal/Bearing Evaluation Checklist
Measuring out of gauge
The selection of bits in the oil industry is very important, so the need to know the different methods to help us make proper use of all the resources at our disposal and make steps to optimize drilling and translate into economic benefits.
The lithology is the most influential factor in the selection of bits, the rock characteristics determine the features that should have bits to present to achieve good performance.
Conclutions
http://www.slb.com/
http://www.varelintl.com/
http://www.spe.org/
http://www.bakerhughes.com/
http://nov.com/
Workshop: "Bits and advanced technologies", Smith Bits, SLB
Workshop: "Barrenas, curso para perforador", PEMEX.
Bibliography
Special Bits
Full transcript