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Gender, Culture, and Disability in Parenting

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Nick Stabler

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Gender, Culture, and Disability in Parenting

What role do mothers have in a "typical" family? Parents...
do not provide warmth or control
provide for basic needs, but do little else for their child
minimize the time they spend with their child
avoid emotional attachment Parenting Styles Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Uninvolved Kail & Barnfield, 2012, p. 468
Image from: http://perlapalacios.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/parenting.gif?w=700&h= Parents...
have high control and little warmth
set the rules and expect them to be followed
allow for little give and take between themselves and their children Parents...
have control while being warm and responsive
explain rules
encourage discussion Cultural and Gender Differences in Parenting Children with Special Needs By: Alison, Krista, Nick and Teresa Parents...
are warm and caring but have little control
accept child's behaviour
punish child infrequently Gender References
Dabrowska, A. & Pisula, E. (2010). "Parenting stress and coping styles in mothers and fathers of pre-school
children with autism and Down syndrome." Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 54(3): 266-280.

Esdaile, S. A. &Greenwood, K. M. (2003). "A comparison of mothers' and fathers' experience of parenting
stress and attributions for parent–child interaction outcomes." Occupational Therapy International 10(2): 115-126.

Kail, R. & Barnfield, A. (2012). Children and their development. Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada Inc.

Möller, E. L., Majdandi, M., de Vente, W., & Bögels, S. M. (2013). The Evolutionary Basis of
Sex Differences in Parenting and Its Relationship with Child Anxiety in Western
Societies. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 1-30.

Pelchat, D. (2010). PRIFAM: a shared experience leading to the transformation of everyone involved. Journal of
Child Health Care, 14(3), 211-224. doi: 10.1177/1367493510364166.

Pelchat, D., Lefebvre, H., & Levert, M-J. (2007). Gender differences and similarities in the experience of
parenting a child with a health problem: current state of knowledge. Journal of Child Health Care, 11(2), 112-131. doi:10.1177/1367493507076064

Pelchat, D., Lefebvre, H. (2003). "Differences and similarities between mothers‚ and fathers‚ experiences
of parenting a child with a disability." Journal of Child Health Care 7(4): 231-247.

Pelchat, D., Lacharité, C., Dulac, G., & Bourgeois-Guérin, V. (2009). Differences and similarities between the
experiences of mothers and fathers of a child with a disability: the point of view of parents. An International Database and eJournal for Outcome-Evaluation and Research, 2. Retrieved from http://www.outcome-network.org/paper/122:differences_and_similarities_between_the_experiences_of_mothers_and_fathers_of_a_child_with_a_disability_the_point_of_view_of_parents

Sullivan, A. (2002). Gender differences in coping strategies of parents of children with Down syndrome. Down
Syndrome Research and Practice, 8(2), 67-73. doi: 10.3104/reports.132

Trute, B. (1995). "Gender Differences in the Psychological Adjustment of Parents of Young, Developmentally
Disabled Children." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36(7): 1225-1242. Fathers How are fathers affected by a child with a disability? More concerned with the world outside the home than day-to-day child care
Exhibit more stress when they have low parenting satisfaction and the child has higher levels of maladjustment
Show increased levels of depression when the child is "less disabled" and/or male
Increased stress is noted when the child has behavioural and/or communication difficulties
More likely to be in denial about the disability
Want their child to be thought of as "normal"
Have a harder time adjusting than mothers
Want to maintain "normalcy" within the family
Over time, fathers tend to develop more understanding for the situation What role do fathers have in a "typical" family? Concerned with the socio-demographic characteristics of the family
Display some stress in relation to their ability to meet the financial demands of the family
Tend to teach and promote social competition and status to their children (based on an evolutionary model)
Stimulate exploration in the child
In Western cultures, the fathers are becoming increasingly more engaged in raising the children Provide a safe, nurturing environment through nursing, caring, bonding, sensitive care and play, household tasks, and personal conversations with her child
Across cultures and history, it has been found that mothers tend to invest more time and resources into the children Mothers How are mothers affected by a child with a disability? Families How are families affected by a child with a disability?
Stress is added to the family
Particularly true for parents of children with emotional, behavioural, and communication problems
The early years of life tend to be more stressful
Family difficulties that exist tend to become exacerbated
Parents need to build parenting skills, gain confidence in their abilities as parents, and attempt to normalize their situation
Some families see the disability in positive ways
Some see it as a natural occurrence, requiring little adjustment
Some see it as an event that promotes growth More worried about making mistakes than fathers
Want their child to be recognized for their individuality while, at the same time, admitting their child is no different than other children
Experience higher stress than fathers when children are less self-sufficient, exhibit behaviour problems, and have physical disabilities
Levels of stress for mothers is correlated with the social skills of the child
Show more signs of depression than fathers
Depression is inversely related to the child's age How mothers cope...
Tend to openly express more emotion than fathers
Seek connections with other people
Seek social supports to help them with decreasing their depression and improving their parental satisfaction How fathers cope... Tend to distance themselves from supports
Have a more difficult time asking for help because this means admitting that their child is different and has limitations
Reach out to external places such as their workplace or sports
Attempt to play the supporting role in the family So what does this mean for teachers? What about gender? Common Themes for Families of Children with Disabilities... Stress and Depression How does this affect the brain? Do the research! Make sure thought has gone into the conversations we have with parents.
Take culture and gender into consideration when discussing issues with parents
Ensure parents understand the "teacher talk" - provide them with materials to understand the vocabulary that is used
Try to keep communication lines open between the school and the home
Be aware of the stress families may be under
For example, depression, financial strain, conflicting parental styles, cultural influences
Build trust with the parents
showing them you have knowledge about their child's disability and programming needs
Consider possible emotional, cognitive and relational strain
Encourage parents to ask questions
Work with families to support them in accessing appropriate community supports Stress and depression have a direct impact on relationships and attachment. We would like to share a video with you about stress and the brain. Unfortunately, for copyright reasons, we cannot embed the video. We invite you to go to vimeo.com and watch the video entitled, "The Brain and Stress". Please use this web address: vimeo.com/38815604 Gender Differences and Depression Culture transmits guidelines about parenting.
It is important to be sensitive to cultural perspective.
Attachment style is not impacted by culture and remains fairly static among the cultures studied.
Cultural beliefs influence parents' views on disability and treatment.
Sadly, many cultures see disability as extremely negative or shameful with a blame culture attached.
Many of the cultural groups studied hold mixed beliefs about disability, with both biomedical and traditional views and generally lack supports or will not utilize supports.
We should be aware of how “white privilege” interacts with all levels of Bronfenbrenner’s Model. It is important that researchers and policymakers do not conceptualize parenting solely based on theoretical models of culture but aim to understand the interaction of cultural frameworks and western culture. Asian Parenting Parenting Style Culture and Parenting When we look at Bronfenbrenner's popularized Ecological Theory of Development, the macrosystem of analysis explains how culture and race can shape the lives of members, especially non-dominant members. Therefore it is important to consider cultural values, as well as dominant frameworks, when working with families There is a value system shared by most Asian cultures: filial piety, collectivism, interpersonal harmony

Family based control that is seen as supportive by children and parents.

Korean youth associated parental strictness and control with parental warmth and low level of neglect Traditional Views On Disability Confucian parenting involves close involvement, devotion, and making sacrifices for the child. It is based on the principle that parents give to their children and, in return, are taken care of in old age.
This is disrupted when a child suffers from a mental illness or disability.
Social recognition in adulthood is important. A child with a disability is unable to attain this which implies a deprivation person hood. Traditional Views on Mental Illness The conceptualizations of mental illness in Asian society are different from
Western biological models.

In Korean mental illness was know as “Crazy Disease” brought on by the devil
and is attached with a large social stigma Coping Caregivers’ relinquish their own desires and dreams to care for their mentally ill or disabled children.

They accept suffering as a way of life.

They distance themselves from the term “Crazy Disease” and look at mental illness as a disease of incompetence which is much more desirable. Tiger Moms? South Asian Traditional Views on Disability South Asian mothers, with more traditional beliefs including those of reincarnation, may perceive their child as NOT permanently disabled. This may result in spending a great deal of time and money trying to “fix” the disability. The first wave Hindu-American community spoke of disability as ‘Punarjanam’, a sin from a past life. To learn from it , you must not complain about it. Caregivers feel isolated and stigmatized. They will often shift to a medical explanation to counter stigma and blame within their families and communities. What Does this Mean?? The concept of cultural reciprocity is rooted in the idea that people cannot be sensitive to cultural differences unless they are first aware of the cultural assumptions that guide their own thinking and behavior. Cultural Reciprocity Cultural Reciprocity:
Goes beyond awareness of differences to self-awareness
Aims for subtle levels of awareness of difference
Has universal applicability
Avoids stereotypical solutions
Ensures that both families and personnel are empowered Step 1: Identify the cultural values underlying interpretations of the situations involving youth and families. The key to this step is to ask, “Why?” Why, for example, might it seem important and natural to recommend that a youth in transition with developmental disabilities move from the family home to supported living and, eventually, independent living? Through self-reflection, the answer might turn out to be that independence and self-sufficiency are strongly held values that may or may not be shared by the youth and family. Self-reflection is a continuous process and the question “Why?” needs to be asked in each situation with each youth and family in order for individualization to be achieved.

Step 2: Explore the extent to which values and assumptions are recognized and accepted by the youth and family. If the youth and family do not view independent living as a milestone to adulthood, then this may not be an appropriate transition goal.

Step 3: Acknowledge any cultural differences, and explain to the youth and family how and why American mainstream culture promotes different values. For example, how the value of independent living has benefited other youth and families might be described, helping the youth and family to understand the cultural basis for professional recommendations.

Step 4: Collaborate with the youth and family to determine the most effective way of adapting professional interpretations and recommendations to the family value system. If, for example, parents understand the reasoning of personnel—that there will probably come a time when they won’t be there to support their child—then they may be more likely to want to develop a transition plan that enhances skills for independence and self-sufficiency. Culture References
Baumrind, D. (1968). Authoritarian vs. authoritative parental control. Adolescence.
Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental psychology, 4(1,
Pt.2)(Supplement), 1-103.
Bornstein, M. H. (2012). Cultural approaches to parenting. Parenting, 12(2-3), 212-221.
Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese
Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training. Child Development, 65(4), 1111-1119. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00806.x
Chao, R. K. (2000). Cultural explanations for the role of parenting in the school success of Asian-American
children. Resilience across contexts: Family, work, culture, and community, 2, 333-363.
Danseco, E. R. (1997). Parental beliefs on childhood disability: Insights on culture, child development and
intervention. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 44(1), 41-52.
Daudji, A., Eby, S., Foo, T., Ladak, F., Sinclair, C., Landry, M. D., . . . Gibson, B. E. (2011). Perceptions of
disability among south Asian immigrant mothers of children with disabilities in Canada: implications for rehabilitation service delivery. Disability and rehabilitation, 33(6), 511-521.
Donnelly, P. L. (2001). Korean American family experiences of caregiving for their mentally ill adult children:
An interpretive inquiry. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 12(4), 292-301.
Dwairy, M., Achoui, M., Abouserie, R., Farah, A., Sakhleh, A. A., Fayad, M., & Khan, H. K. (2006). Parenting
Styles in Arab Societies A First Cross-Regional Research Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(3), 230-247.
Holroyd, E. E. (2003). Chinese cultural influences on parental caregiving obligations toward children with
disabilities. Qualitative Health Research, 13(1), 4-19.
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Kagitcibasi, C. (2005). Autonomy and Relatedness in Cultural Context Implications for Self and Family.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 403-422.
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review and focus on autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(2), 311-319.
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