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Module #2: Biological Basis of Behavior

3A: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System 3B: The Brain 3C: Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology, and Behavior
by

Carrie Hindenach

on 27 September 2016

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Transcript of Module #2: Biological Basis of Behavior

3A: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System
3B: The Brain
3C: Genetics, Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior
Neural Communication:
Introduction
Biology of the Mind:
Body made up of cells
Nerve cells conduct electricity and talk to one another.
They send messages through tiny gaps.
Integration of information to process sight, sound, meaning, memory, pain, pleasure
We are a system within many many systems
Culture
Society
Community
Family
Individual
Neural processing and endocrine system
Neurotransmitters:
Big Idea #2 of the Brain: IT IS OLD!
Big Idea #3 of the Brain: THE NEW IS ABOUT NETWORKS!
Hands out!
Skin on the hand is the cortex or gray matter. Controls much of our behavior and thought
Muscles in the hands represent the white matter (carry information from one part of the brain to another).
How did evolution fit the brain in the scull?
Cortex is curled and wrinkled to fit into the scull (pinch the back of your skin)
But we have a divided brain (cross your fists)
Right hand is left brain
Right hemisphere controls
movement and sensation
on the left side
Left hand is right brain
Left hemisphere controls movement and sensation on the right side
Your wrists represent the brainstem!
Just the Right Hand:
Fingers = frontal lobe
Move just fingers below knuckles = motor cortex
Knuckles to back of the hand = parietal lobe
At knuckles = sensory cortex
Lower part of back of right hand = Occipital Lobe

Thumb = Temporal - connected to the occipital and parietal lobe - represents hearing (hand side of the thumb)
Inside both thumbs = hippocampus and amygdala
Medulla

Reticular formation
Close the hand and you have the..
basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus
Big Idea the Brain:
EARLY CONNECTIONS
Neural Anatomy Case Studies (Get into groups of 3)
Describe the neural anatomy involved in each of these case studies. Be sure to JUSTIFY your answers

Group #1: Anne, the landscape artist, is standig at her easel painting with her right hand as she looks out the window at her garden. She is listening to classical music as she paints.

Group #2: Crazy Eddie, the professional wrestler, is in the ring wrestling. The crowd is yelling and his opponent is taunting him. Eddie yells back at his opponent. The two of them are out of breath and sweating profusely. They continue their well-orchestrated series of wrestling moves.

Group #3: Jill is a student studying for a test. She is reading about violent behavior in males. She is snacking on popcorn and drinking soda.
Big Idea #4 of the Brain: WE ARE STILL DISCOVERING ITS COMPLEXITY
1949: Cat Experiment
(Moruzzi and Magoun)
Electronic Stimulation of a sleeping cat's reticular formation immediately woke the cat up.


Conclusion: Reticular formation wakes us up.
The Brainstem
The HUB of sensory input
(minus smell)
The Thalamus
The Cerebellum
LITTLE BRAIN

MEMORY AND NON-VERBAL LEARNING
Processes Memories
The Limbic System
Aggression and fear
Bodily functions: Thirst, hunger, Sex, etc.
Makes short term memories long term and helps with spatial awareness.
not really part of the brain -
produces 9 hormones (3C)
Bark on a Tree

Thin layer of interconnected neural cells

Thinking cap!
The Cerebral Cortex
Structure of the Cortex
Role of Glial Cells: The Worker Bees
(The more the better)
Speaking
Muscle Movement
Making Plans
Judgement
Sensory input
Touch
Body position
Vision
Hearing
MOTOR CORTEX
REMEMBER - THERE ARE TWO OF EACH
LEFT SIDE AND RIGHT!
ApotemnophiliaMAPPING THE MOTOR CORTEX:
Dollar drop with a partner.
Neural Prosthetics
Association Areas: Information integration
Strange story of Phineas Gage
Other strange things about the brain:
Alien Hand Syndrome
or Dr. Strange Love Syndrome
Riley - Day Syndrome
Cotard's Syndrome
Apotemnophilia
Alice in Wonderland Syndrome
Prosopagnosia
Capgras Delusion
New Brain Mapping
Language Development:
Uses all
Role of Aphasia
Great Web Site: Read about Aphasia and link what is said on this website with what you have read about language development.
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Aphasia/Pages/Introduction.aspx
The Divided Brain
Think of your textbook reading:
"split brains"
"The role of the vision/eyes"
"Corpus Callosum"
"Right Hemisphere"
"Left Hemisphere"
"Dual Processing"
"The Two-Track Mind"
Universal Similarities:
We all read smiles
We prefer sweet over sour
We divide color spectrum into similar colors
We all grieve a child's death
We all dance, feast, play music, punish offense, organize hierarchy, and CONFORM
GENETICS
Active (expressed) v. Inactive
Environmental events turn on our genes.
Examples? What environmental events turned on your genes.
DNA Sequence:
Similarities to each other
Similarities to Chimps 96%
Our DNA is a beautiful symphony
There is no index to the human genome
"Bought the book, hard to read"
Proteins are the work horses of all cells
We have been manipulating the biological world
race horse, full bred dogs, agriculture, etc.
How do you make something wonderful?
divergent evolution: accumulating mutations over generations
Sex creates functional results that are slightly different
Sex is conservative but CREATIVE. We create better versions of ourselves through reproduction.
We are similar but just enough difference to become better....the beauty of evolution.

Our survival relies on evolution of the genome.
Variations:
Complex traits: intelligence, happiness
and aggressiveness - groups of genes.

Traits: Like height are influenced by groups of genes
Identical Twins: Natures own genetic cloning
Have same genes but may not have the same number of copies.
Most have same placenta but some have unique - also may contribute to differences.
Divorce risks = genetic factors (50%)

Fraternal Twins:
No shared genes but same environment
Studies of thousands of twins....identical are much more similar than fraternal.
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2012/01/twins/miller-text
Shared environment:

Little effect on personality?
Journal of sibling and parental behavior
Keep a journal for a week writing down not how you are treated by your parents but how your siblings are treated.
Heritability:

Heritable individual difference do not imply heritable group differences.
We are taller because of nutrituion
We are different because we are in different social context.

Example: Vikings and Scandinavians have same genes but are less violent.
What does this mean for nature and nurture?
Molecular Genetics
Socratic Graded Discussion
Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature.
What makes us so alike?
Natural selection is the most important scientific discovery to helping us understand human behavior
Example: The domestication of the modern dog
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2002/01/dogs/dogs-photography
Natural Selection: Mutations offer advantageous variations
Our greatest mutation - great capacity of learning and adaptation
Evolutionary purpose of morning sickness.
Genetic
Variety of offspring increases survival.
Behavior and biological variation increases survival chances in their environment.
Surviving offspring pass powerful genes on.
Over time population characteristics may change for the better.
Do our bodies fit our current social and physical environment?
Evolved!
What is the main point of the book discussion about human sexuality?
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
NATURE AND NURTURE AND WE GET TO BE THE ARCHITECTS.
Big Idea:
Everything psychological is simultaneously biological

The brain gives
birth to the mind
Our adaptive brain is wired by our experiences
Bio psychosocial Systems
How do all of these systems work together to form...you.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/oct/14/childhood-stimulation-key-brain-development
Key to preventing bad decisions as a teenager.....simulating the brain power when they are 4!
Quick Videos from Harvard....
Big Idea:
Brain development starts immediately and continues until about 20.
your
hand
Your fingers
Your arm
Listen/recieve
Speaks/tells
decides/majority rules
Neurotransmission Problems:
linked to obsessive compulsive disorder: Your brain literally does not get satisfaction from washing your hands so you don't know when to stop.
linked to depression: endorphin production is low or the binding process is flawed somehow.
Self-mutilation: attempts to control the emotional and euphoric rush of pain.
Responsible for heighten states of rage and anxiety. The hypothalamus is simply overworked all the time so endorphins are released at inappropriate times or in over exaggerated amounts.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/humanspark/category/video/
Stroop Effect: Interference between the automatic processing of words and the more effortful task of naming the colors. Anterior cingulate connects the impulse-driven brain and the higher, more rationally-driven behaviors.
AGILITY
agression and fe
Planning and Judgement
Sensory input
Auditory (opposite)
Cordination
Know Association Areas: Integration of Information
Hand seem to have a mind of their own: Frontal lobe, perhinal lobe.
Insensitivity to pain
They believe they are dead, ghosts or walking dead
Face Blinding
People are posers
Behavior
The study of the power of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
remember the importance developing connections. Connections build the ever important and relatively new concept of grey matter
Action Potential
Ion is an electrically charge atom
Is television harmful?
Neurotransmitters
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Full transcript