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Effects of Homework
Transcript of Effects of Homework
Kristen Moody Negative Effects of Homework Homework Recommendations to Enhance Effectiveness Assign homework only when necessary; it should be purposeful
Should be designed to maximize student completion (based on student development)
Provide students with choice in order to increase motivation
Use the 10-minute rule (for all assignments together)
Use shorter more frequent assignments rather than fewer long assignments
Promote parent involvement by giving specific instructions for both students and parents as to their expected role in the assignment
Use homework logs to help students develop self-regulation Site Context According to NH DOE Lancaster School is Preschool-8 with 428 students for the 2011-2012 school year. The school community of Lancaster contains students from Vermont, Jefferson, NH, Dalton, NH, Lancaster, NH and Whitefield, NH. 46% of the students in Lancaster receive free or reduced hot lunch. The diversity of Lancaster is less than 4% minority. Application to Site What are the Positive and Negative Effects of Homework at the
Middle School Level? home·work /hōmwərk/ Noun Any tasks “assigned to students by school teachers that are meant to be carried out during non-school hours” (Cooper, 2001) Positive Effect:
Any desirable impact or benefit to students Negative Effect:
students Positive Effects of Homework Improves academic achievement
Gives students an opportunity to engage in self-regulation
Develops good study habits
Helps students recognize that learning can take place anywhere & anytime
Provides caregivers with information regarding what students are working on in school
May take place of screen time Limits the time children have to take part in leisure activities that teach important skills (sports, clubs, etc.)
Limits family time/activities
Drain on parents
May lead to boredom with school
May promote undesirable traits such as cheating & lying
Presents conflicting messages through different approaches from parents and teachers
Accentuates social inequalities Promising Practices Synthesizing the research from Kohn (2006)…..and Marzano & Pickering (2007) within their arguments regarding the issue of real research on homework, Dr. John Butler of the Beacon Charter High School had this to say about implementing a homework policy at their site:
Interestingly enough, some consensus can be derived from Kohn…Marzano and Pickering that can help with the development of our guiding principles for homework. All agree that: • Assigning massive amounts of homework for homework’s sake has no benefits to student achievement. In fact homework in itself does not positively affect student achievement. • There should not be a “no homework ever” policy. • Homework should be structured in a way that students can accomplish it with relatively high success rates, so they will complete all or large portions of the homework. • Homework should not be assigned simply as a matter of routine. • There is need for further research as to what are the characteristics of effective homework.
• Research supports the generalization that there is a positive effect on student achievement if the homework is properly designed and assigned in such a way that the proportion completed by students increases (Butler, 2011). In assessing Lancaster, the homework policy follows the suggestion by Dr. Butler. Todd Lamarque, building principal, explained why SAU 36 implemented a homework policy that requires teachers to make a homework grade weigh no more than 10% to a student’s overall grade average. Lamarque said homework is out of the teacher’s control once the student walks out of the classroom door. It is hard to assess if the student is actually doing the work or if they are receiving help from a parent, sibling, or someone else. ”We need to make sure that we are really assessing the student and not someone’s ability to do the work so we can get an accurate picture of what the student is actually learning.” Homework can also lead to other problems such as a student who does the work is seen as compliant and therefore is liked by the teacher. A student who does not do the homework can be seen as non-compliant and a power struggle can ensue (Lamarque, 2013). Sources Butler, J. (2011). Homework: Foundational research for beacon's guiding principles. Retrieved from http://www.beaconart.org/documents/white_papers/Homework - Foundations for Beacon's Guiding Principles.pdf
Cooper, H., & Valentine, J. C. (2001). Using research to answer practical questions about homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 143-153.
Hefer, B. (2011). The last word: An interview with harris cooper - research, policies, tips, and current perspectives on homework. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(2), 340-349.
Kohn, A. (2006). Abusing research: The study of homework and other examples. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(1), 9-22.
Lamarque, T. (2013, March 12). Interview by D. Patterson. Sau 36 homework policy.
Marzano, R. J., & Pickering, D. J. (2007). Errors and allegations: About reseach on homework. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(7), 507-513.
Marzano, R. J., & Pickering, D. J. (2007). The case for and against homework. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 74-79.
Ramdass, D., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2011). Developing self-regulation skills: The important role of homework. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(2), 194-218.
New Hampshire Department of Education. (2011). New Hampshire school and district profiles [Data file]. retrieved from http://my.doe.nh.gov/profiles (Cooper & Valentine, 2001; Hefer, 2011; Kohn, 2006; Marzano & Pickering, 2007; Ramdass & Zimmerman, 2001) (Cooper & Valentine, 2001; Hefer, 2011; Kohn, 2006; Marzano & Pickering, 2007; Ramdass & Zimmerman, 2001) (Cooper & Valentine, 2001; Hefer, 2011; Kohn, 2006; Marzano & Pickering, 2007; Ramdass & Zimmerman, 2001)