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Strong Interest Inventory
Transcript of Strong Interest Inventory
Originally published in 1927 and was known as the Strong Vocational Interest Blank.
Strong created a Women’s form in 1933
Revised both the Men’s and Women’s forms in 1938 and again in 1946 Strong died in 1963 but his research continued.
After Strong’s death, Minnesota psychologists Kenneth B. Clark and Ralph Berdie established the Center for Interest Measurement Research at the University of Minnesota. In 1974- David P. Campbell revised the SVIB, and it became known as the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII).
Campbell made TWO major changes to the strong.
1)He added an additional set of scales, the general occupation themes, using John Holland's hexagonal model of occupational personality types.
2)He also aimed to eliminate sex bias by combining the men and women’s booklets. He eliminated any reference to gender in all items. Two major revisions took place in 1981 and again in 1985 by Jo-Ida C. Hansen at the Center for Interest Measurement Research at the University of Minnesota.Hansen’s goal was to create gender balanced scales with equitable career options for Men and Women. By the 1985 version, 101 pair of scales had been created on female and male samples for the same occupation. That nearly tripled the 37 matched samples that were available on the 1974 version. Hansen also added several occupational scales for non-college occupations on the 1985 version. (Carpenter, Chef…) The next major revision of the Strong occurred in 1994. 55,000 people in 50 occupations took a research version of the Strong. They increased their sample size from the previous 300 men and 300 women to 9,467 women and 9,484 men. The language was updated.
Four new Basic Interest were added: The Applied ArtsCulinary ArtsData ManagementComputer Activities Fourteen more occupational scales were also added to reflect contemporary occupations. (Technical writer, corporate trainer, paralegal…) A new set of scales was added, called the Personal Style Scales. These scales measured preferences for work style, learning, leadership, and risk taking. The appearance was updated. Internet and software administration and scoring abilities became available. The General Occupational Themes Describes your interests, work activities, potential skills, and personal values in six broad areas:
and Conventional (C). Holland's created the RIASEC theory in the 1960’s, and it added general occupational themes to improve the quality of the instrument. Holland thought there were 5-7 basic dimensions underlying the structure of interests.
The six general occupational themes- Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional- are homogenous scales that consist of 22-30 items. Holland’s theory suggests, the intercorrelations between themes are generally highest between adjacent themes as they are arranged on the hexagon, and lowest between themes that are opposite one another.
Scales opposite one another have correlations that are less than .1 The General occupational themes have good internal consistency with all reliabilities measuring above .9. The GOT themes are weighted so that a “like” response on an item raises the individual’s theme score. (Weight = +1)
A “Dislike” response would lower the score (Weight = -1),
and an indifferent response has no effect on the score (Weight = 0). FOR EXAMPLE: If someone responded to the item of High School teacher on the Social Theme with a “like” response, the person’s score on the Social theme increases. If someone responded with a “dislike” response on the same item, their score for the Social theme would decrease. The Basic Interest Scales Identifies specific interest areas within the six GeneralOccupational Themes, indicating areas likely to be mostmotivating and rewarding for you. Each of the 25 Basic Interest Scales are made up of items that statistically correlate with one another.
The Basic Interest Scales are focused on measuring a specific interest area.
They can be thought of as a subdivision of the General Occupational Themes.
Each theme has 3 to 5 Basic Interest scales associated with it.
Each Basic Interest scale is made up of 5-21 items. The Occupational Scales Compares your likes and dislikes with those of people who are satisfied working in various occupations, indicating your likely compatibility of interests. Indicates which types of people, across a wide range of occupations, share interests in common with you. There are 211 occupational scales that represent 109 occupations. For individuals to be included in the occupation scales they had to be:1)Satisfied with their work2)At least 3 years experience in their job3)Performing their job in a typical way4)At least 25 years old -Scales were approximately 45-50 items in length.
Items on the scale were varied. A person’s score increases when they respond “like”, “dislike”, or “indifferent” to items that are weighted positively. -A person’s score decreases when they respond “like”, “dislike”, or “indifferent” to items that are weighted negatively. -The weight of items is determined by comparing the items that are different between the occupational sample and the general reference sample and determining whether the “like” or “dislike” showed the greater difference. The difference then gets weighted either +1 or -1 depending on the direction of the difference. Personality Style Scales Describes preferences related to work style, learning, leadership, risk taking, and teamwork, providing insight into work and education environments most likely to fit you best Measures four ways in which your personal preferences or styles might influence your choice of work.
-There are four personality scales: Work style scale, Learning environment scale, Leadership style scale, Risk/ Taking/ Adventure Scale.
-Personality style scales measure aspects of the style with which the respondent likes to learn, work, assume leadership, and take risks.
Reliability The 1994 revision led to increased reliabilities for the “Strong”.-The test-retest reliabilites on the Strong’s general occupational themes for a sample of working adults over a three to six month working period range from .84 to .92-The realistic, Artistic, and Investigative scales show exceptionally high reliability with correlations above .90 for all three. -The median three-year test-retest correlations for the Basic Interest Scales are great for adults. (r = .82) However, for High School students (r = .56) but changes can be expected over a three-year period. -The median test re-test reliability for the occupational scales for a sample of adults tested on the 1994 occupational scales over a three to six month period was .90 and ranged on the various scales from .80 to .95. Validity -The hit rate is about 65% when predicting the occupations that individuals will enter based on their earlier scores on the Strong. -This rate was obtained by determining the percentage of the samples that entered occupations in which they had an occupational scale score of 40 or higher. -Research has also shown that the chance is 8:1 that individuals will not enter a career that they had received a score of 30 or lower on the occupational scale. -Level of predictability is higher for individuals who have well defined interest patterns. Administering the Strong Can be administered one of three ways.
1.Paper and pencil2.Interactively with a software system3.Online Paper-and-Pencil AdministrationBest used by cost-conscious operations where results are not immediately needed.
For example, Nonprofit community based career centers serving an adult population.
PROS: Least expensive method.CONS: Takes about three weeks to get the assessment back from the client, to the publisher, and the results returned to you before you can schedule a follow-up session. Software System Administration
Best used by high-volume operations that have sufficient staffing and appropriate scanning equipment.
For example, High-volume, large-scale university counseling or career centers serving students.
PROS: On site scoring capabilities allows for immediate access to results. Convenient for the client. With scanning option, it provides enhanced speed, accuracy, and flexibility in scoring.
CONS: Additional Staff time is required to print reports.
For on-screen option, clients need to have time to remain at
your site to take the inventory.
For scan option, OMR scanner is very expensive.
For manual key-in option, additional staff time is necessary to key in results. Internet AdministrationBest used by operations that have clients in diverse or remote locations and where there is a client expectation, need or desire for convenient access or quick turnaround times.
For example, outplacement firms or career development centers serving sophisticated clients from diverse locales in time-limited sessions.
PROS: Clients can take the inventory from any location at any time. Immediate access to resultsEnhanced speed, accuracy, and flexibility in both administration and scoring. CONS: Most expensive method of administration. Requires a computer, internet connectivity, and appropriate browser. Keys to competent Administration of the Strong 1.Inform the clients that it will take 35-40 minutes to complete using a pencil/paper version and 15-20 minutes online. 2.Make the client aware that the Strong is an Inventory of interests, NOT a test. It is not possible to fail the strong. 3.Encourage clients to consider only their interests. They shouldn’t worry whether or not they would be good at a particular job. 4.Remind the clients that the Strong does not measure abilities or aptitudes. It cannot predict whether an individual possesses the skill to succeed in any given occupation. 5.Remind clients that the Strong is made to suggest career fields of interest for them to explore. It’s not designed to tell people what they “should be.”6.Instruct clients to mark the first answer that comes to mind. It’s more accurate when individuals don’t think about it for too long. Limits on administering the Strong 1.Reading level. The Strong is set at an 8-9th grade reading level. However, not all of the vocabulary terms used will be familiar to everyone. For the most meaningful results, it would be necessary to provide people with the definition to unknown words.
2.Age. The inventory is created for people age 14 and older. However, the test is not usually given to people below the 8th grade, because interests are not usually developed at that time.
3.Language. For people who do not speak English as their first language, the Strong may not be effective if clients don’t understand the meaning of items Scoring the Strong If the strong was administered in the paper and pencil format, clients can mail the item booklet and answer sheet to one of two CPP scoring centers. People on the East Coast send it to Washington, D.C. People on the West Coast send it to Palo Alto, Ca. If the Strong was administered using a software system, the item booklet/ answer sheet need to be scanned or keyed in, before running thee software to complete the scoring. If the strong was administered using the Internet, results will be received electronically. How To Interpret the Strong Because the Strong can be used for so many different reasons, you will need to focus your interpretative strategy to address your specific goals and your client’s individual needs.
The model for interpreting the Strong will be divided into TWO sections. 1)Preparing for the interpretation 2)Sequencing the interpretation Step one: Assess the validity of the profile. → Assess whether the profile appears valid for interpretation. No scores less than 300. Step two: Review the summary of items responses. →Note any extreme percentages of “like”, “indifferent”, or “dislike” responses (Above 80% or below 20%). Step three: Review the snapshot- summary of results. →It summarizes the client’s scores on the general occupational themes, listing them from highest to lowest as measured against the general reference sample of the respondent’s same sex. The snapshot also lists the top five Basic Interest Scales and top 10 Occupational Scales. Look for themes that repeat across the different sections of the inventory. Also note any inconsistencies.
Example→ Is there a consistent pattern, across different sections, of high scales with social interests? Also, is there an inconsistency, such as a number of high social basic interest scales, but a lack of occupational scales with a social theme code? Step four: Review the personal style scale. → Look at the score on these scales and note how they might fit or conflict with your knowledge of your client’s work environment or style. Step five: Review the general occupational themes. → Which two or three of the six General Occupational Themes summarize your client’s strongest interest? Step six: Review the Basic Interest Scales. → Look for which scales out of the 25 are highest, and which are lowest. Step seven: Review the Occupational Scales. → Note which occupational groups have interests that are similar to your client (scores above 40), and which occupational groups appear to have interests dissimilar to your client (scores below 30).
A score of 19 and below = very dissimilar A score of 20- 29 = dissimilar A score of 30- 39 = mid-range A score of 40- 49 = similarA score of 50 and above = Very similar Step eight: Determine a preliminary theme code. → The theme code is derived from the scores of the general occupational themes. Step nine: Summarize the important highlights. Step ten: Select an interpretive sequence. INTERPRETING THE STRONG Step one: Introduce the results. → what thoughts, reactions, or questions does the client have? Step two: Explain Holland’s theory and the general occupational themes. → Explain that Holland’s theory is used to organize the client’s interest into six broad themes. Step three: Discuss the basic interest scales. → Explain that the interest scales measure more narrow interests that do the general occupational themes. These scales aim to find out the specific topic areas a person likes and dislikes. Step four: Interpret the occupational scales. → Explain that the occupational scales differ from the occupational themes in that these scales do not address the content of the client’s interest directly. Instead, they address the types of people that have interest patterns similar to the client. Step five: Discuss the personal style scale. → Explain that these four scales
measure general styles or preferences for interacting with people and approaching
new tasks or activities. Step six: Summarize results. → Discuss the client’s reactions and answer any remaining questions. Step seven: Encourage exploration beyond the profile. What is a “Flat” profile? A flat profile is one that has very few scores at, or above the “average interest” level on the General Occupational Theme Scales or Basic Interest Scales. -Common reasons are: Lack or work/life experience, general indecisiveness, narrowly defined or unique interests, depressed mood or disinterest in working, took inventory grudgingly. -If this is the case, you can administer the strong again with instructions to endorse more likes and dislikes, or suggest that the client take the Strong at a later date when they have more experience. What is an “Elevated” profile? -An elevated profile is one with numerous high scores throughout the profile resulting from numerous “like” responses.
-Common reasons are: A client may honestly have multiple, wide-ranging interests. It may be an attempt to “look good”, uncomfortable endorsing dislike, or afraid of ruling out career options prematurely.
-If this is the case, you can discuss ways to integrate diverse interests throughout work and life roles, suggest focusing on different interests at different times in life, or administer the Strong again with instructions to purposely endorse fewer likes
Key STRENGTHS of the Strong The Strong is based on a strong tradition of research and is one of the most thoroughly grounded
instruments available for the history of career assessment.
The researchers analyzed data on over 67,000 people in developing the 1994 revision.
Has excellent reliability
The color coded profile is easy to understand
Numerous options for customized reports are available to meet various needs. Key LIMITATIONS of the Strong Respondents are limited to only three options. (like, indifferent, dislike) •The basic interest scales are limited in length, ranging from only 5 to 21 items. Small changes in responses can lead to significant changes in standard scores. • Discrepancies between scores on different types of scales can be difficult to explain to clients due to the different scale construction methods used. • Profiles with fewer or numerous scale elevations are hard to interpret.