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Transcript of Medieval Culture
King Edward I
Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
John, a.k.a John Lackland,ruled England from 1199-1216.
The story of William the Conqueror
A unique primary source exists to document the Battle of Hastings. It is an embroidered piece of linen 210’ long and 20” tall. It is called the
England in the Middle Ages
The Hundred Year War 1337 - 1453
English claimed right to Normandy (France).
In 1337 King Edward III declared himself King of France. War began. It lasted 100 years.
-Battle of crecy - English archers defeated french.
-In 1429 Joan of Arc inspired the French to fight. The English captured Joan--She was burned at the Stake.
-The French defeated the English.
-He set up a central court with trained lawyers and judges
-He appointed circuit judges
-He established a body of common law (the same for the whole kingdom).
-He set up juries to handle arguments over land. Eventually, two-jury system:
1. The grand jury decided whether people should be accused of a crime.
2. The trial jury decided whether an accused person was innocent or guilty.
Ruled from 1154 to 1189
-William the Conqueror was the first Norman King of England. He ruled from 1066 to 1087.
How did the Magna Carta affect the King's power?
-He raised taxes and punished his enemies without trials.
-Nobles revolted and forced him to sign a document of rights called the Magna Carta, or the Great Charter. It stated:
-The king could no longer collect taxes unless the Great Council agreed.
- Freemen accused of crimes had the right to fair trials by their peers, or equal.
-It established habeas corpus - "no free man" could be jailed except by a lawful judgement of his peer.
-The Magna Carta helped established the idea that people have rights and the power of the government should be limited.
-Set up committee of advisors, this gathering became the first Parliament
-Parliament divided into two houses:
1. House of Lords (nobility)
2. House of Commons (townspeople)
-An important step towards representative government
-He defeated Harold Godwinson in the
battle of Hastings, and claimed England's throne.
If it doesn't fit you must acquit
Jurors explain their reason