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history of white Australia
Transcript of history of white Australia
Reactions of the Outside World
*The Japanese and Indians are not pleased
*Britain hesitantly supports Australia
*The US and South Africa are dealing with their own racial problems at this time
Treatment of the Aborigines
The Aborigines were treated poorly as time went by.
they were forcibly removed from their families
they were shackled and chained
they were beaten, and tortured
they were also systematically deprived of their own language
*Ratify the White Australia legislation
*Suggest that Australia does not restrict immigration solely on color and race
*Recommend an additional written test: in a European language
*Overall, not fond of immigration laws
- it got in the way of commercial alliances like Anglo-Japanese Alliance
3 years after the white settlers came to Tasmania a small island off the coast of Australia, Serious killings started. White settlers ended up killing 10,000 Aborigines from 1824 to 1908. The situation was so bad that a royal commission was formed to stop the killings of Aborigines, because their population was on the brink of extinction.
*Is also part of the British Empire in 1901
*Do not appreciate that the British can immigrate, but they cannot
*However, no action is taken against the Parliament of Australia
*Considers itself a superior race, angry that it has been grouped together with the "lowly" Chinese, Pacific Islanders, Indians...
*Pushes for racial equality amendment in 1919 UN meeting
-amendment does not pass
White Australia policies
the Australia policy was formed in 1901 and it had multiple policy's surrounding it.
All of the policy's were dismantled by the government between 1946 and 1973.
the policy was created to decrease the immigration of asian people into Australia.
After the White Australia policy in 1901
After the White Australia Policy of 1901, the Australians tried to deport the asians out of the country.
They were very intent on keeping asians from their country because they were taking their mining jobs.
An example the seriousness is Australia made a law saying that for every 500 tons brought to Australia by ship one asian person can be brought in.
Profiles of Dominant and Minority Groups in White Australia
Classified as the major dominant group
Captain James Cook landed in Botany Bay in 1788 where he lead the colonization of Australia in a manner eerily similar to the colonization of Native Americans
"From Federation in 1901, until 1973, Australia had a restrictive immigration policy, known as the White Australia Policy, which limited immigration mainly to immigrants from the British Isles , though some exceptions were made for Southern and Eastern Europeans"
The Sociological Perspectives
No significant reactions due to racial problems within the country
-height of the Ku Klux Klan 1920's
-Jim Crow laws (1876-1965)
-Martin Luther King Jr (1955-1968)
-huge financial separation between the dark-skinned and whites
-1952-1994 years of greatest racial unrest involving Nelson Mandela
USA and South African Reactions
The Australians: threat and a problem
The Immigrants: Innocent and opportunity
Australians: they don't belong
Asians: Harmless and out of the way
Australians: Supreme race, they belong here, netter than everyone else
Asians/ Aborigines: They're discriminatory and not very considerate, but the asians and aborigines need them to survive.
Post WW II
Better conditions and better opportunities
Leads to Immigration
Discrimination and feeling unwelcomed
Distinguishing features of Europeans
Country of origin (mainly Britain)
Europeans also generally had higher economic standings and occupied government positions, as well as other important jobs in society.
beginning of Colonization of Australia
white settlers came to Australia in 1788. the Aborigine population was about 400,000. The Aborigines lived in Australia since 40,000 years ago. As time went by The Aborigine population was devastated by Small pox, measles, and chicken pox.
History of White Australia
First occupants of Australia were the majority, numbering around 300,000 before colonization
However, "by 1996, they were a minority struggling to claim rights to their traditional lands and for financial compensation for lost lands and resources"(Worldmark Encyclopedia)
Distinguishing Features of Australian Aboriginies
Country of origin (Australia)
Languages (300 in total, Walpiri,Western Desert Language, etc)
Religions varied amongst the people but through their colonization, "many aboriginal people have converted to Christianity either by choice or by the influence of education and mission schools"(Worldmark Encylopedia)
Suffered economic disadvantages
Inter group relations
had to meet certain criteria
they weren't allowed in Australia
WW1: Australia commits hundreds of thousands of troops to the Allies
WW2: Australia allows US to base its supreme command on its territory, allowing better access to Pacific Islands and Japan
Cold War/Korean War: Australia sends troops to fight N. Korean communist forces
Vietnam War: Australia sends troops, supporting the US
Other Global Events: 1901 - 1973
Asian immigrants to Australia were the bottom rung in the social ladder
Immigrants came from many countries mainly China but also from Japan, Vietnam, and India
Argument was that Asians took jobs away from white men, worked for "substandard" wages, and lowered working conditions
"Only in 1970 did the country begin to admit Asian Immigrants and today Australia has a large Asian and Pacific Islander community"(Immigration and Multiculturalism)
The Chinese came to the country as a result of the discovery of Gold there in 1851. Over 40.000 Chinese men and 9,000 women immigrated over the course of 40 years.
Also given the opportunity to work for low wages
Distinguishing Features of Asian Immigrants
Country of origin (China, Japan, Vietnam, India, etc.)
Economic status (these immigrant opften occupied the lowest wage jobs and took the work no one else was willing to do)
Major Leaders/Groups Involved
Prime Minister John Curtain was a major leader of the White Australia policy who reinforced the law during World War II "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."-Curtain
Alfred Deakin drafted the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901 saying "It is not the bad qualities, but the good qualities of these alien races that make them so dangerous to us. It is their inexhaustible energy, their power of applying themselves to new tasks, their endurance and low standard of living that make them such competitors."-Deakin
Major Leaders/Groups continued...
Action from Whitlam government and Harold Holt's Liberal government helped to dismantle the discriminatory legislation in 1973
Helped pass the Racial Discrimination Act of 1975
Scope of the White Australia Incident
Consumed the entire country and affected the lives of a majority of the people living at the time
White Australian government is most powerful
Need to find a way to stay in power
Use discrimination: Convincing White Australians that any other race is no good
Turning each minority group against each other.