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Chapter 2 Section 4 Reactions and Enzymes

good stuff
by

Jeanette Morales

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 2 Section 4 Reactions and Enzymes

When hydrogen gas reacts with oxygen to produce water vapor, it is an energy-releasing reaction in which energy is given off as heat.



2H2 + O2 2H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)


How would you reverse this reaction?
END OF SECTION
Which of the following statements is true?
All proteins are enzymes.
All catalysts are enzymes.
All enzymes are catalysts.
All catalysts are proteins.
2–4
The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are known as
reactants.
enzymes.
products.
waste.
2–4
Activation Energy
Chemists call the energy that is needed to get a reaction started the activation energy.
Energy in Reactions
The factor that prevents many energy-releasing reactions from occurring at relatively low temperatures is called
catalytic energy.
chemical bond energy.
enzyme energy.
activation energy.
2–4
Regulation of Enzyme Activity

Enzymes can be affected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction.
pH values
Changes in temperature
Enzyme or substrate concentrations
Enzyme Action
An Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction
Enzyme Action
The Enzyme-Substrate Complex

Enzymes provide an
active site
where reactants can be brought together to react, reducing the energy needed for reaction.

The
reactants
of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are known as
substrates
.
Enzyme Action
Some chemical reactions that make life possible are too slow or have activation energies.

These chemical reactions are made possible by
catalysts
.
Enzymes
Energy in Reactions
The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are known as
reactants
.


The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are known as
products
.
Chemical Reactions
2–4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
What happens to an enzyme after the reaction it catalyzes has taken place?
The enzyme is destroyed, and the cell must make another.
The enzyme holds on to the product until another enzyme removes it.
The enzyme is unchanged and ready to accept substrate molecules.
The enzyme changes shape so it can accept a different kind of substrate.
2–4
Chemical reactions always involve
changes in energy.
enzymes.
catalysts.
changes in the atomic number of the reactants.
2–4
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
Enzymes
Energy Changes

Exothermic
- chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously.

Endothermic
- Chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy.
Energy in Reactions
A
chemical reaction
is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.
Chemical Reactions
electrolysis
When these ions come into contact with their respective electrodes they either gain or lose electrons depending on there ionic charge. (In this case the hydrogen gains electrons and the oxygen loses them) In doing so these ions balance their charges, and become real, electrically balanced(or in the case of the hydrogen, a molecule).
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