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Curriculum Planning

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Kerry Jo

on 16 August 2013

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Transcript of Curriculum Planning


Developmental Delays


Field Trips

Lesson Plans

A two year old goes through many developmental stages as it goes from toddlerhood to childhood.
"The two year old faces demands that can be overwhelming at times: new skills and behaviors to be learned and remembered, needs and feelings that are difficult to express, learned responses to be perfected, and puzzling adult expectations with which to comply" (Marotz, 2013, pg 115, para 6).
In growth and physical stages of development for two year old's, "they should weigh approximately 26 to 32 pounds, the average height should be between 34 to 38 inches and they should have all of their baby teeth"(Marotz, et al. 2013, pg 116, para 3).
In the motor developmental stage a two year old should be able to climb up and down furniture without assistance, "open doors, and grasp large crayons and be able to scribble" (Marotz, et al., 2013, pg 117, para 1).
As for the cognitive developmental stage a two year old should be able to follow simple instructions such as two-step instructions, they "exhibit eye hand movements that are better coordinated, and can begin to use objects for purpose other than intended" (Marotz, et al., 2013, pg 117, para 2).
Moreover, there speech and language developmental stage is also greatly improved.
For example, two year old's "use 50 to 300 words, they have broken the linguistic code, and utters three and four word statements" (Marotz, et al., 2013, pg 118, para 1).
In relation to social and emotional stage development, two year old's are able to "show signs of empathy and caring, express frustrations through temper tantrums, and are often impatient" (Marotz, et al., 2013, pg 119, para 1).

Stages of Development

"Young children are naturally curious when it comes to learning, they are prone to poking, pulling, tasting, pounding, shaking, and experimenting“ (Wilson, 2008, pg 1, para 1). In other words, children are very action-oriented, and like to be hands on when they learn.
A curriculum should include “planned activities, materials and equipment, and interactions between children and providers and among children” (Anonymous, 2013, pg 1, para 1).
Creating a curriculum that is centered on how a child learns is a crucial part of this classroom.
The curriculum should focus on "how to create a social, emotional, and intellectual climate that supports child-initiated and child-pursued learning and the building and sustaining of positive relationships among adults and children" (Lally, 2001, pg 1, para 36).
Curriculum planning should ultimately focus on all developmental areas such as: cognitive development, language development, social and emotional development, and physical development.
Moreover, the curriculum should focus on "cultural development and approaches to learning as these are equally important” (Anonymous, 2013, pg 1, para 2).
Curriculum planning can be very tedious and often frustrating when trying to develop a curriculum that meets the needs of each and every child because not every child is the same.
To ensure that the curriculum set forth meets and supports the development needs of the students, one can "implement early childhood development principles and apply them in a classroom that provides hands-on, center-based activities promoting the development of emerging skills for each individual child" (Anonymous, 2008, pg 1, para 1).
In order to create the best possible curriculum a teacher should have a curriculum that meets several factors such as subject matter of disciplines, social or cultural values, and parental input.
"The content of the early childhood curriculum is determined by many factors, including the subject matter of the disciplines, social or cultural values, and parental input" (Naeyc, 1997, pg 12, para 5).
Curriculum Planning Process

In order to make the environment safe it should also include an "area for diapering, and bathroom needs such as low toilets and step stools for washing hands and using the toilet for potty training" (Anonymous, n.d., pg 1, para 6).
Additionally, the classroom environment should "contain toddler sized furniture such as low tables and chairs" (Anonymous, n.d., pg 1, para 6).
More importantly the "equipment should be toddler sized and inspected regularly to make sure its safe to use" (Anonymous, n.d., pg 1, para 6).
This classroom will be incorporating many things to make it developmentally appropriate for the two year old's.
Additionally, this classroom will support the developmental needs of the two years in three ways, one is the use of themed lesson plans such as using the alphabet or numbers.
A second way this classroom will be supporting the development needs of the two year old's is through center time and pretend play.
Lastly, and most importantly the classroom environment will be supporting the children's developmental needs by incorporating field trips so they can experience new things outside the classroom.

Early childhood education classrooms should never be "understated as children spend on average of up to 12,500 hours in child development centers" (Shaw, 2002-2013, pg 1, para 1).
Proper classroom environment is essential to the development of the children that are in the classroom.
A well-planned indoor or outdoor environment can support child development through each of the stages of development between social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development.
A classroom environment should encourage trust, as well as, independence while also helping children to gain positive self-concept, self-discipline and also to help children develop positive relationships with others such as fellow classmates.
The classroom environment should ultimately contain an area for play, eating, and learning.

Classroom Environment
"Two year old's are very independent, common favorite words are mine, no and I do it" (Oesterreich, 2002, pg 1, para 1).
Many parents can relate to how difficult two can often be, this is however, common for children of this age and they will grow out of it with proper care.
Two year old's experience many new developmental changes and growth changes as they go from toddlers to children.
Two year old's have "a roller coaster-like quality of emotions that they grow through, and they spend a great deal of time exploring, pushing, pulling, filling, dumping, and touching" (Oesterreich, 2002, pg 1, para 1).
Furthermore, it is crucial to have a classroom environment that encompasses the many different needs of this age group.

Two Year Olds

When talking about children whether as parents or caregivers, one often talks about their growth and development.
Many things can be positive or negative to the growth and development of the child.
"A curriculum is a guide on how one nurtures children's development, it allows the caregiver to offer experiences that help children learn about themselves and the world around them" (Anonymous, 2013, pg 1, para 1).
This presentation will be covering how the classroom environment supports the developmental needs of the children, as well as, the process involved in curriculum planning and how to ensure curriculum is supporting the development needs of students.
Lastly, stages of development that are unique to selected age group, how developmental delays can impact the learning needs of a student and how to modify classroom environment or curriculum to accommodate a student with delays.
Even though children develop differently, it is crucial to have a curriculum that meets the needs of each child individually even those with special needs.


Kerry McDaniel
ECE 205

July 24, 2013

Curriculum Planning

Two year old's love to use their imagination especially with pretend playing.
As part of their developmental growth the classroom will be implementing learning activities that incorporate pretend play.
An example of an activity that incorporates pretend play while remaining developmentally appropriate would be using the little tyke's kitchen.
The children could pretend to be setting the table for dinner.

Pretend Play

Another part of the curriculum would be center time where the child would sing songs, and do story time according to a certain theme.
For instance, if the theme of the week is a letter of the alphabet or number on the number line the lesson would be taught accordingly.
An example would be the letter B, the songs to sing and books to read would start with this letter.

Center Time

Christine Nonnemacher
Field trips can be a great way for children to learn and build their developmental needs.
"Field trips and excursions are an important (and fun) part of the learning process in early care and education programs" (Anonymous, n.d., pg 1, para 1).
Field trips can help the children build their social and language development.
"Children's curiosity and interest can be stimulated and questions better answered when they interact meaningfully with people, materials, equipment, and environments in their local neighborhood and community" (Anonymous, n.d., pg 1, para 1).
Field trips allow the child to experience new things, such as new surroundings and new people.
"The places the child visits become extensions of their learning environment" (Anonymous, n.d., pg 1, para 1).
Furthermore, it is important that field trips maintain an equal amount of quality learning and safety.
Montana Map to Inclusive Child Care. (n.d.). Field trips for all.
Retrieved from: http://www.ccplus.org/TipSheets/TipSheet11.pdf
Childcare Aware. (2013). Curriculum. Retrieved
from: http://childcareaware.org/child-care-providers/program-planning/curriculum
Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center (2001). Curriculum in head start.
Retrieved from: http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/eecd/curriculum/teaching%20strategies/curriculuminhea.htm#response
Oesterreich, L. (2002). Ages & stages-Two year olds. Retrieved from: http://www.nncc.org/child.dev/ages.stages.2y.html
Module 2.(n.d.). Creating environments that support children's growth and development.
Retrieved from: http://www.bmcc.edu/headstart/trngds/enhancing/module2.htm
NAEYC.(1996). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8.
Retrieved from: http://www.msjc.edu/ChildDevelopmentandEducation/ChildDevelopmentEducationCenters/Documents/Child_Development_and_Education_Centers/developmentally_appropriate_practice.pdf
Shaw, J. (2002-2013). The building blocks of designing early childhood educational environments. Retrieved from: http://
Wilson, R. (2008). Promoting the development of scientific thinking. Retrieved from: http:
Marotz, L. R. & Allen, K. E. (2013). Developmental profiles: Pre-birth through adolescence (7th ed.). Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Many parents often wonder whether they're child is developing at a normal rate or if they have a developmental delay.
There are many factors that can affect the rate and nature of children's developmental growth, such as "genetics, culture, family structure and values, nutrition, health, and poverty" (Marotz,et al., 2013, pg 242, para 5).
Developmental delays can have a severe impact on the learning needs of children at any age level.
For instance, at two years old, children of this age level are just beginning to truly explore their world. Whereas prior they were rather limited on what they could do.
Some common developmental delays for two year old's are language, vision, motor, social, and cognitive delays.
There are occurrences where a child may have several or all of these areas of delays, this is called global developmental delay. (Anonymous, 2005-2013, pg 1, para 3).
Unfortunately, this could be due to any number of reasons ranging from Down syndrome to serious medical problems that have developed shortly after birth. (Anonymous, 2005-2013, pg 1, para 3).
Developmental delays can and will impact the learning needs of children, because the child would not be functioning the way they should be at their age level.
For example, with language or speech delays a child may not respond when talked to, or have difficulty following two-step instructions.

Developmental Delays Cont.
Children of this age group may find it harder to learn new things as they would be struggling with trying to do the same as the other children.
With a language or speech delay, the child would have difficulty understanding what is being taught or asked of them.
Vision delays can have a big impact on how the child learns because they would have a hard time focusing on what is in front of them.
Children with vision delays may have difficulty seeing such as "refractive errors" (Anonymous, 2005-2013, pg 2, para 2).
Motor delays can also have a huge impact on how the child learns because they would have difficulty with their gross motor skills and possibly fine motor skills.
A child with a motor delay would have difficulty using fingers to grasp things such as a marker or crayon and would also have difficulty in crawling or walking. (Anonymous, 2005-2013, pg 2, para 5).
There are several ways in which to modify the classroom to accommodate students with delays.
For example, a child with developmental delays could be accommodated by collaborating with professionals first before developing a curriculum that meets the needs of the children with delays.
To accommodate a child with a speech delay, the curriculum would include lots of reading and singing as this promotes and encourages language development.
In order to accommodate child with a vision delay, the curriculum could have alternative activities. For example, if the children were doing an activity with a ball the visually impaired child could do something that doesn't require them to see the object in order to do the activity.
Accommodating children with motor delays could easily be accommodated. For instance, if the activity involved pretend play the student "could use clothing that is easily removable without requiring the use of fine motor skills" (Anonymous, 2005, pg 7, para 2).
It is crucial to create lesson plans centered on how a child learns because they will easily grow bored and uninterested.
Some examples of what the lesson plan should include are literacy, science, math, and creative arts.
For literacy, the lesson plan should include books that are developmentally appropriate while ensuring that they focus on the areas of development.
For example, the three little pigs and the very hungry caterpillar focus on developing children's social and emotional contexts.
Asking the children questions will help them to relate to the story being told, thereby helping them build their social and emotional development.
As for lesson plans for math, remember that children are constantly surrounded by mathematical information throughout their day.
According to Gaye Gronlund, "young children are absorbing mathematical information as they play with objects like sorting boxes, pouring and measuring sand, helping with household chores, and learning to wait their turn" (Gronlund, 2007, ch. 5, para 1).
The lesson plan should include fun creative ways that children can learn math such as the use of blocks to teach the children about the different sizes and shapes.
In relation to lesson plans for science the children could do an activity where they learn about buoyancy by having them try and make an object float.
In addition, a lesson plan for creative arts could include art projects with themes such as the seasons, or the holidays.
It is important to have lesson plans as they add structure to the classroom and allows the children to know what is to be required of them during the day.
Gronlund, G. (2006). Make early learning standards come alive: Connecting your practice and curriculum
to state guidelines. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press

WebMD. (2005-2013). Recognizing developmental delays in children. Retrieved from: http://

Philadelphia Inclusion Network. (2005). Promoting the inclusion of infants and young children with disabilities in child care. Retrieved from: http://jeffline.tju.edu/cfsrp/products/materials/pin/Promoting_full_participation.pdf
In conclusion, even though children develop differently, it is crucial to have a curriculum that meets the needs of each child individually even those with special needs.
As previously mentioned, many things can be positive or negative to the growth and development of a child.
Always remember to set goals as they play an important role in curriculum planning.
It is important that one knows what needs to be done or in other words have a set outcome in mind.
Never expect a child to learn the same way as another, this is why it is important to plan a curriculum because it allows the teacher to meet the needs of each individual child.
Curriculum planning allows the school to have a set agreement about what needs to be done, and how to do it.
Additionally, it is important that a curriculum is easily adjustable in order to accommodate a variety of different students, whether culturally diverse or developmentally delayed.
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