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Medieval Medical Knowledge

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Stephen White

on 15 February 2013

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Transcript of Medieval Medical Knowledge

(The Comprehensive book of medicine) Often referred to as
Al-Hawi Eastern Islamic Medicine A Dark Ages for Medicine losing the past... Common Aliments and Treatments Physicians & their
Medical Sources Come to the crusades, and there is an obvious imbalance of knowledge Western European
Medicine Medieval Medical Knowledge and the impact of the crusades Remnants of Pagan
Folklore Poor Sanitation Limited Practitioners and Medical Sources Western European Medicine consist of... ου Works and ideas in the advance of medicine were never translated from Greek to the common tongue...... translated all available Greek books of science and philosophy, and Arabic supplanted Greek as the language of intellectual inquiry. Materials in the royal Persian archives together with Sanskrit manuscripts, and the Greek traditions, were assimilated and then enhanced to create a remarkable body of knowledge that can rightfully be called Arab Science. In turn, teachings of Hippocrates, Galen and other philosophers were lost to them...... The world of medicine fell back into an age of stagnant superstitions and beliefs... sickness and disease was not addressed or amended through intervention It's Gods Punishment They continued to believe that diseases and disorders were the work of demon's and evil spirits... ex... Arthritis or Rheumatism was thought to be caused by "Elfshot"... Which means you've been hit by an arrow of a wicked elf Why wash when sickness comes from sin.... What are germs???? or evil spirits? The Herbarium of
Apuleius Platonicus The Medicina de Quadrupedibus The Leechbook of Bald The Lacnunga Preservation of life is mandated by the following verse of the Quran: “The saving of one life is as if one has saved humanity." Continued Learning and Medical Advances..... Learning from the past What made up Islamic Medicine
pre-crusades?... Formal Education Galen and Hippocrates were considered the highest authorities on medicine by Medieval Islamic scholars. All available Greek books of science and philosophy were translated into Arabic Pagan Latin and Greek learning was viewed suspiciously in early medieval Christian Europe... The Arab world had become a collection of
cultures Islamic scholars would advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Roman, Chinese, Indian, Persian, Egyptian, Greek, and Byzantine civilizations Based of acquired knowledge Islamic scholars
produced new medical knowledge, turning
the sometimes inconsistent Greek and
Roman work into Encyclopedias Higher education had become increasingly organized from the early-ninth century,
Muslim cities routinely featured some type of university 'Cairo Cordoba Baghdad the first teaching hospital...... Damascus 707 AD Cairo Cordoba subsequently more teaching hospitals were established in other Muslim cities..... Medically Cohesive Culture
QUR'AN "Are those who have knowledge and those who
have no knowledge alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful. " (Quran, 39:9) Leprosy:
A Problem
in Common Leprosy in Christian and Islamic Culture Treating the Leper Leprosy was considered a “humoral” disorder:
A corruption caused by an excess of black bile Great religious significance was given to leprosy, more so than medical significance
Believed to be a punishment by God for immorality and sin
Pope Alexander III in 1179
Lepers should have their own churches, houses, and priests
4th Lateran Council of 1215 strongly encouraged the giving of alms to leper hospitals The Leper in Christian Society The earliest indisputable evidence of leprosy was determined by an osteological study in Egypt
Scientists used skulls to identify the disease and they date back to 500 A.D. Record of Leprosy Leprosy is also known as Hansen’s Disease
It is an infection caused by the bacterium Myobacterium leprae
It causes granulomas to form in peripheral nerves and the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract
Skin lesions are the most prominent feature, as well as numbness
The individual’s immune system becomes weakened What is it? Verses 13-14 of Leviticus are riddled with references to “defiling skin disease” (translated to lepra in Greek)
An individual who was examined and determined to have an “unclean” skin disease was to be isolated for a certain number of days, but not indefinitely.
“Biblical leprosy” was not necessarily leprosy, but any skin ailment; it could even refer to mildew/mold in the home.
The leper was instructed to wear rags and remain unkempt, and where ever he/she went warn those around them by calling out “Unclean” Christian Teachings Granuloma Individual suffering from leprosy
24 years old The Prophet Mohammed's teachings "seeking knowledge is a duty of every Muslim" cleanliness is half the religion He who issues forth in search of knowledge is busy
in the cause of Allah till he returns from his quest. Sanitation Cleanliness and dietary regime were high on Muslim priorities Ritual cleansing of the body precedes each of the five daily prayers... these practices sparked the development of sophisticated public-water projects and ingenious engineering techniques Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi Kitāb al-Manṣūrī fī al-ṭibb
(The Book of Medicine for Mansur) ( 865 - around 925AD) Al-Razi first to draw clear comparisons between smallpox and chicken-pox compiled more than 200 works during his lifetime Leprosy causes distinctive changes in bone, especially in the skull ` first to use opium for anesthesia. Humors Blood Yellow Bile Black Bile Phlegm Kitab-al Hawi fi al-tibb some of his notable works include.... Humor Theory Humor Correction Humoral imbalance would usually be corrected through diet Or removal of the excess humors themselves the largest medical encyclopedia ever composed at the time Bloodletting was practiced all throughout the crusades... consists of 23 volumes and up until the late 19th century! contains Greek, Indian and early Arabic sources now lost to time Emetics were also used to force vomiting Also contains volumes of his own observations and experiences Islamic Teachings Traditional sentiment toward leprosy is based on the statement made by the Prophet that “a Muslim should flee the leper as he would flee from a lion”
Muslims also believed lepers were being punished by God
Arabic medical descriptions of leprosy made their way to medieval Europe and were the basis of knowledge of the disease until the 1600’s The Leper in Islamic Society Some cities had completely segregated suburban quarters for lepers (“leprosaria”)
Leprosy was considered a mortal illness, so the individual lost all legal rights and obligations
although the Prophet instructed Muslims to avoid lepers, there is nothing about it in the Qur'an, so they were less stigmatized than in Christian culture Battlefield
Injuries Blades Arrows and Lances Maces Greek Fire a short general textbook on medicine written for the Samanid ruler of Rayy, Abu Salih al-Mansur Abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdalah ibn-Sina While some blade injuries weren't treatable Most bleeding could be stopped Arrow and lance injury was particular difficult to explore due to the small skin puncture If an arrow was stuck due to barbs... push it through Often armor would be pinned to the person making treatment difficult Crushing injuries have unique considerations... Large area of damage Damaged tissues release kidney damaging chemicals Prognosis is difficult Burns were treated with ointments egg white, camphor, ceruse with oil of roses and wax Leeches were also used
for this purpose Surgery Christianity at the
time Scurvy you can't change it so whats the point? Injured gums Weakness Spots Symptoms of Scurvy Treatment Synthesis Nutrition What do you mean I should bath more than twice a year Isolation The Roman Empire had retreated leaving much of Western Europe cut off Who practiced medicine The Lacnunga The Sources and who used them The Herbarium of
Apuleius Platonicus A collection of prescriptions
and recipes Contains a mixture of both pagan and Christian influences like the recipe for "holy salve" Saints Names Spittle Many errors in transcribed herbal names Written around 1000 AD Each chapter covers the properties of specific herbs The Medicina de Quadrupedibus The Leechbook of Bald Remedies based on animals and their secretions Was of little practical use.... Written between 900-950 Organized from head to toe Reveals the low standard medicine
had descended.. Another name for doctor was"leech" Barbers were considered doctors Leechs (or physicians) could be from all walks of life, but a high percentage were monks. And yes sometimes leechs used leechs.... A medical knowledge collection that was outdated and insufficient And the Results? Don't take too much
Don't take too much Ok...How many goat balls do I need again??? A vast collection of knowledge The most medically advanced society of the time Culture that knew how to take technology and..... Western
Europe
Knowledge Islamic Knowledge Islamic knowledge spreads throughout Europe Noted works like Canon of Medicine and countless others were translated and brought to Europe In mathematics the number Zero (0) and the decimal system was introduced to Europe, which allowed for a Scientific revolution Treating the Leper A shift in thinking occurred.....Science and observation became the new rule instead of sin and demons Sanitation increased Trade increased bringing in paper, soap, perfumes, ceramics, glass, jewelry, medicines, and textiles into Europe Examples of treatment:







Ingesting gold (which symbolized richness and purity)
Bloodletting
Soaking in a bath with the “pure” blood of an infant or virgin
Sexual activity
Castration
Ritual cleansing Influx of knowledge Superstitions declined European medicine starts moving forward again The crusades brought about the expansion of Islamic knowledge into Europe, but did little to benefit the medical knowledge of Islam "There is no fault in the blind, and there is no fault in the lame, and there is no fault in the sick." aka...Avicenna
Avicenna (Ibn Sina) prodigy and mastered the Koran at age ten. was completed in 1025 Qanun (Canon of Medicine) was an enormous 5 volume encyclopedia The leper should not participate in any sexual activity
castration
Very similar treatments to those of Western Europe, because both cultures believed in the humoral theory blood letting tools Surgery was often performed to
manage trauma on the battlefield But was also performed electively
after other options had been exhausted Antioch was a key translation center during the crusades Sources Allen, Regan. "How to Cure Leprosy According to a Medieval Physician." Wonders Marvels RSS. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.

Lyons, Jonathan. "Early Islamic Medicine." Lapham's Quarterly. Web. 13 Feb. 2013.

Mitchell, Piers D. Medicine in the Crusades: Warfare, Wounds, and the Medieval Surgeon. New York: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print.

Rogers, Clifford J., William Caferro, and Shelley Reid. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. New York: Oxford UP, 2010. Print.

Rubin, Stanley. Medieval English Medicine. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1974. Print.

Shen, Alen. "Leprosy in the Bible: Quarantine or Ritual?" Leprosy in the Bible. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.
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