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LEARNING GRAPHICS

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by

Melodee Landis

on 31 January 2011

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Transcript of LEARNING GRAPHICS

LEARNING GRAPHICS Lohr, L. (2003). Creating graphics for learning and performance. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. “Visual literacy is defined as the ability to understand and use images, including the ability to think, learn and express oneself in terms of images.” Roberts Braden (1996) in Lohr, p. 3 Technocentric thinking =
technology drives the design Learner-friendly thinking =
instruction drives design A visual is a form of communication that is not verbal.
Braden’s (1996) 5 categories:
1. semiotics and film/video conventions
2. signs, symbols and icons
3. images and illustrations
4. multi-images5. graphic representation Pavio’s (1990) Dual-coding theory Proposes that rather than just one sensory memory, one short-term memory, and a long-term memory, as might be implied in information processing theory, there are actually separate memory systems for different types of information: one for verbal information and one for imaginal information verbal memory - information encoded pictorially, or in pictures visual memory - information encoded verbally, or in words "Cat" = "District" = ? Mayer - visuals and words are most likely to facilitate learning FIGURE/GROUND = mind's tendency to see edges and doing so to separate figure elements from ground elements HIERARCHY PRINCIPLE is based on the mind's tendency to process and remember "chunks" of information that are in turn arranged hierarchcally. subordinate superordinate coordinate outlines
arrows
lists
etc. TYPOGRAPHY RESEARCH Our levels:
Novice - need help with basic skills such as fill, shapes, inserting, file types, saving, uploading, downloading (espec. to our course Google Site, simple image edits (contrasts/cropping),
Intermediate - need work on fonts for appropriate/most effective use, type and design principles presented here
Advanced - can use practice creating vector graphics or using advanced editing, design and layout. (Usually requires high-end, purchased software) http://www.coe.unco.edu/LindaLohr Is a picture always worth 1,000 words? Our tools:
Free:
Google Draw
MS Word
MS PPt
Paint
Wordle.net
tagxedo.com
gliffy.com
Purchase:
PhotoShop/Elements
Animationish
Adobe Illustrator http://www.fablevision.com/animationish/ Assignments:
Novice - tutorial by Landis & assignment
Intermediate - create a graphic using principles here; upload to Google Site page with description of what you used and why
Advanced - Identify tutorial; do it and produce graphic OR identify another application, learn something new, create graphic using these principles OR how-to on class choice; upload to Site page with description and rationale Instructional typography- the art and science of using individual letters, words, and passages of text to convey an instructional message. Fonts Which type/fonts best for instruction?
Depends on content, learner, delivery format, environment Serif: (easier to read in text;
square serifs used in instruction,
highly readable)
Baskerville
Bembo
Bodoni
Caslon
Centaur
Century
Clarendon (square)
Garamond
Georgia (square serif designed espec. for Web easy rdg.)
Roman Old Style (highly readable on paper)
Times New Roman Sans serif:
(headings, computer display)
Franklin Gothic
Futura
Helvetica
Trebuchet
Univers
Verdana Script (different voice, certificates,
historical period, ornamentation)
Brush script
Lucida Handwriting
Freestyle Decorative: Symbol
Qwerty
Symbol
Dingbats
Webdings Decorative: Display (titles, headings
– tiring to read if lengthy;
mood or metaphor)
Really Bad Typewriter
Ravie
Litterbox Vocabulary:
Ascender – part of lowercase letter that rises above its body (b, d, f, h, k, l, t)
Descender - part of lowercase letter that falls below it’s baseline (g, j, p, y)
Caps height – the height of an uppercase letter measured from the baseline
Ascender height – height of tallest part of a letter
x-height – height of lowercase letter w/o ascenders or descenders
Counters – width of enclosed part of lettersLeading/line spacing (in Word-Format-Paragraph – space between lines of text)
Kerning – space between letters
Bowl – curved portion of a character
Serif – wing Taller x-heights easier for people to read (Georgia/Clarendon)
No difference serif and sans serif
Very small serif typefaces disappear on computer displays
Wider counters easier to read
Either extreme in leading not optimal for reading Alignment
Left-aligned/ragged right – most readable; recommended for long instructional text passages
Right-aligned/ragged left – should be avoided for long passages; can add element of interest; useful with graphic or another column of text.
Centered – novices overdo; okay for title page; more formal
Justified – avoided in instructional text; gaps make eyes tired) Size
Rule of thumb: for every 10 feet of distance between viewer and visual,
increase font size ½ or 36 points. SHAPE TOOLS Simple shapes (circles, ovals, squares, rectangles, lines)
Circles and ovals are used to show unity, imply harmony, show processes, focus attention, show elements of systems)
Squares and rectangles act to contain information, facilitate comparisons, show hierarchy and focus attention
Lines are used to separate and define, set boundaries, show motion and direction, make connections, show sequence and show emotion and volume (Hansen, 1999).Complex shapes(stars, swirls, triangles, arrows, brackets, etc.) COLOR Color can make a difference
Can be distraction or enhancing Heinich, Molenda, and Russell (193) recommend these color combinations for effective contrast, in order of preference:
black on yellow
green, red, or blue on white
white on blue
black on white
yellow on black saturation = intensity of a color value = a color’s brightness Principles:
Choose colors to make important information stand out (Figure/ground)
Choose color that will establish an order of importance (Hierarchy)
Choose colors that help the learner see the big picture (Gestalt)
Choose color based on inspiration from nature and art
Choose color based on color palettes found in templates
Choose color based on psychological associations (p. 146 chart) OUR BUSINESS: What else?
Animation: design & animation
Scanning
Digital cameras
Picture editing? TYPES "Picture superiority effect" Assignments:
Novice - tutorial by Landis & assignment
Intermediate - create a graphic using principles here; upload to Google Site page with description of what you used and why
Advanced - Identify tutorial; do it and produce graphic OR identify another application, learn something new, create graphic using these principles OR how-to on class choice; upload to Site page with description and rationale Use GIF and JPG for online publishing. Although other formats for online publishing are in development, at present GIF and JPG are the standards.
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