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The Middle Ages

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Hans Thyssen

on 28 May 2014

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Transcript of The Middle Ages

The Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
450-1066
End of Roman rule --> Battle of Hastings
Celts ( ??? - 55 BC)
Roman Britain (55 BC - 450 AD)
Anglo-Saxon Britain (450 AD - 1066 AD)
Roman Britain
Bath
Migration of the Peoples
Hadrian Wall
Claudius
Two Britains
1. Anglo-Saxon Britain
Most of present day England

2. Roman Britain
South Schotland
Cornwall
Wales

Anglo Saxon Britain
Kings and Warriors - Loyalty and Bravery
Christianity (7th Century)
Beowulf
Latin literature and Illuminations
Bede
Anglo Saxon Chronicles
Vikings
King Alfred of Wessex
Danelaw
Sutton Hoo
Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Venerable Bede
venerable = eerbiedwaardige, achtbare, first stage in catholic canonization
ca. 672 - 735
monk, deacon, priest
monastic studying
latin
The Father of English History
King Alfred: translation
Anglo-Saxon Politics
Religion
King Oswald
1. a) "learned to hope for those heavenly realms which were unknown to their forefathers" "Gained from the one God who made heaven and Earth greater earthly realms than any of his ancestors had possessed"

1. b)
Good King:

He ruled over different people with different languages
He was always wonderfully humble, kind, and generous to the poor and strangers.
Good Christian:
Bishop as adviser

He gave to the poor
He spread Christianity

1.c) It was blessed by the bishop after he had given generously to the poor

2)
He was of noble blood (Oswald was the nephew of the house of Deira through his sister Acha)
He died in battle. He was constantly at war.


Beowulf
Beowulf's world
Nations
Lord & Retainers
Heroic Code
Blood-feud & Wergild
Pagan society
Grendel & His Mother
Troll, pagan god
Demon, descendant of Cain
Can't stand the noise
Human flesh
Mother just wants revenge
Wyrm
Beowulf = King of the Geats
Wyrd = fate
Wiglaf
After his death the Swedes shal overpower the Geats
The Danes
Hrothgar = King of the Danes
Heorot = Hart of the danish Kingdom
mead-building
mead = honey beer
Heorot = beerhall
Problem: Grendel
The Geats
Beowulf = Prince of the Geats
Big Hero
Very brave
Wants to establish his name
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
Angelsaksische kronieken
http://www.wikipedia.org
Battle of Hastings, 1066
William the Conqueror --> William I
Bastard from Normandy
French
Language change
English = creole language
Food
Cow
Pig
Calf
Deer
Sheep
Beef
Pork
Veal
Venison
Mutton
Rich
Chicken, Duck, and rabbit
Poor
Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux, Normandy
Commissioned by William I
Embroidered Tapestry
Edward --> Harold --> Battles --> William I
Halley's Comet
Omen
Back to the Chronicles
Handwritten
monks and clerks
pictures (Illuminati):
illiteracy
personal comments -->
subjective
Late Middle Ages
1066-1500 (or 1485)

1066: Battle of Hastings
Domesday Book:
record possessions
property became fixed
taxes

Kings and Warriors --> Feudal System
Nobility (French)
Clergy (Latin)
Commoners (English)

Nobility
The King lent land to the Nobility
King has all power
Until 1215: Magna Carta (King John)
Hundred Year's War (1337-1453)
English claim to the French Throne
War of the Roses
(1455-1485)
Lancaster
York
Shakespeare's
Histories
Tudors
Clergy
land from king and nobility
monks and nuns from rich families
pardons
crusades
Memento Mori
Heaven or Hell
Clergy became very rich
Commoners
farmers
traders
craftsmen
pay tax to nobility or clergy
No class
Serfs:
owned small piece of land
obligations to an overlord (nobility or clergy):
taxes
services
Vileins:
bound servant
work on lord's land
could have and support own family
Slaves:
no rights at all
Growth -->
Plague -->
Labour Shortage -->

Peasants' Revolt (1381)
beaten down
Richard II
no change

Ballad
illiteracy
Specifics:
simple stories
rhyme
betrayal, lost love, revenge and death
supernatural
refrain
set phrases
ABCB
For more details see p.36
Robin Hood
vigilante
Geoffry Chaucer
Who?
You know, that famous medieval writer!
1343-1400
Hundred Year's War
Diplomat:
Petrarcha -- sonnets
Boccaccio -- frame story
customs officer (tax inspector)
judge
Clerk of the King's Works
looking after important buildings
caretaker (custodian) of the royal forests
Grave in Poet's Corner
Canterbury Pilgrimage
Shrine of Thomas Beckett:
to be cured
to be closer to God
to have your sins forgiven
Stories:
beating boredom
all levels of society
Frame story
one Basic Story
many stories incorporated in it
frame story: pilgrimage to and fro
stories: told by pilgrims -->
different characters
different classes
different genres
Canterbury Tales
in rhyme
Nobility
Commoners
Clergy
General Prologue:
Introducing all characters
Prologues:
introducing characters
commentary
The Knight's Tale
"a most distinguished man"
Romance: classic matter
chivalric ideals
elevated language
quest for a lady's hand
Roman Language:
origin in France
Past
The Miller's Tale
"a wrangle and a buffoon"
Fablieu:
comic tale
cuckold: cheating on stupid husband
coarse and bawdy language
Now
The Wife of Bath's Tale
"she'd had five husbands, all at
the church door"
Romance (lay): British matter
with a twist
quest: how to threat a woman
powerful woman
Past
Prologue
Confession:
confesses her sins
personification of Greed/Lust
Wicked woman
five marriages
The Pardoner's Tale
"he'd have to preach and tune
his honey tongue"
Exemplum:
example in sermon
moral theme: Greed is source of all evil
Sells Pardons & Relics:
staying out of purgatory
pardon: bull by bishop
now
Full transcript