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Science year 2

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LBP Visser

on 21 May 2016

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Transcript of Science year 2

Lab Safety
Lab safety rules are guidelines designed to help keep you safe when experimenting. Some equipment and chemicals in a biology laboratory can cause serious harm.

It is always wise to follow all lab safety rules. Don't forget, the most helpful safety rule is to use plain old common sense.

The following biology lab safety rules are a sample of the most basic rules that should be followed when in biology lab.

Be Prepared
Be Neat
Be Careful
Wear Proper Clothing
Be Cautious With Chemicals
Wear Safety Goggles
Locate Safety Equipment
Be Prepared !
Before you enter a biology lab, you should be prepared for and knowledgeable about any lab exercises that are to be performed. That means you should read your lab manual to know exactly what you will be doing. (Bailey, 2014)

Be Neat !
When working in a biology lab, make sure you keep your area neat and organized. If you happen to spill something, ask for assistance when cleaning it up. Also remember to clean your work area and wash your hands when you are finished. (Bailey, 2014)
Be Careful !
An important biology lab safety rule is to be careful. You may be working with glass or sharp objects, so you don't want to handle them carelessly. (Bailey, 2014)
Wear Proper Clothing !
Accidents do happen in a biology lab. Some chemicals have the potential to damage clothing. With that in mind, you want to make sure that the clothing you wear is something you could do without if it becomes damaged. As a precaution, wearing an apron or lab coat is a good idea.

You will also want to wear proper shoes that can protect your feet in case something gets broken. Sandals or any type of open-toed shoes are not recommended.
(Corner, 2013)
Be Cautious With Chemicals !
The best way to remain safe when dealing with chemicals is to assume that any chemical you handle is dangerous. Be sure you understand what type of chemicals you are using and how they should be properly handled.

If any chemical comes in contact with your skin, wash immediately with water and inform your lab instructor. Wear protective goggles when handling chemicals. (Corner, 2013)
Wear Safety Goggles !
I know that safety goggles are not stylish and can fit awkwardly on your face, but they should always be worn when you are working with chemicals or any type of heating apparatus. (Bailey, 2014)
Locate Safety Equipment!
Be sure you know where to find all safety equipment in the biology lab. This includes such items as the fire extinguisher, first aid kit, broken glass receptacles, and chemical waste containers. Also be sure you know where all the emergency exits are located and which exit route to take in case of an emergency. (Bailey, 2014)
Biology Lab Don'ts !
eat or drink in the lab
taste any chemicals or substances you are working with
use your mouth for pipette substances
handle broken glass with bare hands
pour chemicals down the drain without permission
operate lab equipment without permission
perform your own experiments unless given permission
leave any heated materials unattended
place flammable substances near heat
engage in childish antics such as horseplay or pranks
(Bailey, 2014)

Lab Equipment

protects eyes from chemical splashes
bunsen burner
used to heat substances
graduated cylinder
accurately measures liquid volumes
spot plate
a flat plate with multiple "wells" used as small test tubes
hot plate / stir plate
used to heat and stir substances
test tube
open tube used to hold liquids
Erlenmeyer flask
used to hold liquids, has narrow neck to prevent splashes
test tube rack
holds 5-6 test-tubes in a row
for pouring liquid or other substance through a small opening
volumetric flask
for making up solutions to a known volume
stirring rod
used for stirring
dropper pipet or disposable pipet
for drawing in a liquid and expelling it in drops
an instrument for determining weight
test tube clamp
clamp used to hold hot test-tube
measures temperature (science uses degrees in Celsius)
used to hold liquids
watch glass
to hold solids while being weighed, or as a cover for a beaker
used to pick up or hold small items
safety symbols

Science skills
scientific method
The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments.
The steps of the scientific method are to:
Ask a Question
Do Background Research
Construct a Hypothesis
Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
Communicate Your Results (Science Buddies, 2002)
Metric conversions - The metric system is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement that was originally based on the mètre des Archives and the kilogramme. (Roberts, 2012)
metric conversion
Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form. Scientific notation has a number of useful properties and is commonly used in calculators and by scientists, mathematicians and engineers.
scientific notation
Standard notation is a plain number without any decimal points or exponents. For instance, the number 549 is a number set in standard notation while its expanded notation is 500+4+9. Standard notation is different from scientific notation in that scientific notation is written as the product of a number with a power of 10.
Standard Notation
Measurement is collection of quantitative data. A measurement is made by comparing a quantity with a standard unit. Since this comparison cannot be perfect, measurements inherently include error.
Matter occurs in four states: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. Often the state of matter of a substance may be changed by adding or removing heat energy from it. For example, the addition of heat can melt ice into liquid water and turn water into steam.

A solid has a definite shape and volume.
Examples of solids include ice (solid water), a bar of steel, and dry ice (solid carbon dioxide).
A liquid has a definite volume, but takes the shape of its container.
Examples of liquids include water and oil.
A gas has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.
Examples of gases are air, oxygen, and helium.
Some introductory chemistry texts name solids, liquids, and gases as the three states of matter, but higher level texts recognize plasma as a fourth state of matter.
Plasma has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.
Plasma often is seen in ionized gases. Plasma is distinct from a gas because it possesses unique properties. Free electrical charges (not bound to atoms or ions) cause plasma to be electrically conductive. Plasma may be formed by heating and ionizing a gas.
Stars are made of plasma. Lightning is plasma. You can find plasma inside fluorescent lights and neon signs.
Phase Change
A phase change is a change in the state of matter of a sample. A phase change is an example of a physical change.
A plot of temperature verses time for a substance where energy is added at a constant rate.
Heating curve
Chemical change is any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances. At the molecular level, chemical change involves making or breaking of bonds between atoms. These changes are chemical:
Chemical change
iron rusting (iron oxide forms)
gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon dioxide form)
eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil and crosslink to form a network)
bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas)
milk souring (sour-tasting lactic acid is produced)
suntanning (vitamin D and melanin is produced)
Physical change
Rearranges molecules but doesn't affect their internal structures. Some examples of physical change are:
whipping egg whites (air is forced into the fluid, but no new substance is produced)
magnetizing a compass needle (there is realignment of groups ("domains") of iron atoms, but no real change within the iron atoms themselves).
boiling water (water molecules are forced away from each other when the liquid changes to vapor, but the molecules are still H2O.)
dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules are dispersed within the water, but the individual sugar molecules are unchanged.)
dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates molecules without changing them.)
chemical and physical change
The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons
Atomic Structure
Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday objects. A desk, the air, even you are made up of atoms!

atoms are made of : protons ( positive charge) & neutrons (negative charge)
Determining Protons, Neutrons and Electrons of Atoms and Ions
The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It is listed on the periodic table for each element. No two elements have the same atomic number (or the same number of protons), so the atomic number identifies the element.

Atomic Number
Mass Number
Mass number: total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (not listed on the periodic table, since it varies).

Mass number - atomic number = # neutrons
The number of electrons in an element can change. For a neutral atom, the number of protons is exactly equal to the number of electrons. So the number of electrons is the same as the atomic number. However, it is possible to remove electrons and not change the identity of an element. These are called ions. The charge on the ion tells you the number of electrons.
Determining the number of electrons
The electron configuration of an atom is the representation of the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells. Commonly, the electron configuration is used to describe the orbitals of an atom in its ground state, but it can also be used to represent an atom that has ionized into a cation or anion by compensating with the loss of or gain of electrons in their subsequent orbitals. Many of the physical and chemical properties of elements can be correlated to their unique electron configurations. The valence electrons, electrons on the outer most shell, become the determining factor for the unique chemistry of the element.
Electronic Configurations
Bohr model
The Bohr Model has an atom consisting of a small, positively-charged nucleus orbited by negatively-charged electrons. Here's a closer look at the Bohr Model, which is sometimes called the Rutherford-Bohr Model.
Periodic Table
The periodic table of the elements contains a wide variety of information such as element symbols, atomic number and atomic mass is most common, but the periodic table can contain even more data than previously expected. This will show you how to use a periodic table to gather information about the elements.

The periodic table contains informative cells for each element arranged by increasing atomic number and chemical properties. Each element's cell typically contains:
The element's symbol. Symbols are the abbreviations of the element's name. In some cases, the abbreviation comes from the element's Latin name.

The element's atomic number. This number is the number of protons an atom of this element contains. The number of protons is the deciding factor when distinguishing one element from another.
The element's atomic mass in atomic mass units. This number is a weighted average mass of the element's isotopes.

The element's name. Many periodic tables will include the name to help those who may not remember all the symbols for elements.
The horizontal rows are called periods. Each period indicates the highest energy level the electrons of that element occupies at its ground state.

The vertical columns are called groups. Each element in a group has the same number of valence electrons and typically behave in a similar manner when bonding with other elements. The bottom two rows, the lanthanides and actinides all belong to the 3B group and are listed separately.
Many periodic tables identify element types using different colors for different element types. These include the alkali metals, alkaline earths, basic metals, semimetals, transition metals, nonmetals, lanthanides, actinides, halogens and noble gases.
chemical bond
Atoms are the basic building blocks of all types of matter. Atoms link to other atoms through chemicals bonds resulting from the strong attractive forces that exist between the atoms.
So what exactly is a chemical bond? It is a region that forms when electrons from different atoms interact with each other. The electrons that participate in chemical bonds are the valence electrons, which are the electrons found in an atom's outermost shell. When two atoms approach each other these outer electrons interact. Electrons repel each other, yet they are attracted to the protons within atoms. The interplay of forces results in some atoms forming bonds with each other and sticking together.
The two main types of bonds formed between atoms are ionic bonds and covalent bonds. An ionic bond is formed when one atom accepts or donates one or more of its valence electrons to another atom. A covalent bond is formed when atoms share valence electrons. The atoms do not always share the electrons equally, so a polar covalent bond may be the result. When electrons are shared by two metallic atoms a metallic bond may be formed. In a covalent bond, electrons are shared between two atoms. The electrons that participate in metallic bonds may be shared between any of the metal atoms in the region.
If the electronegativity values of two atoms are:

Metallic bonds form between two metal atoms.
Covalent bonds form between two non-metal atoms.
Nonpolar covalent bonds form when the electronegativity values are very similar.
Polar covalent bonds form when the electronegativity values are a little further apart.
Ionic bonds are formed
Molecular compounds or covalent compounds are those in which the elements share electrons via covalent bonds. The only type of molecular compound a chemistry student is expected to be able to name is a binary covalent compound. This is a covalent compound made up of only two different elements. Here is a look at the nomenclature rules for molecular compounds, plus some examples of how to name the compounds.
Naming compounds
Molecular compounds contain two or more nonmetals (not the ammonium ion). Usually you can recognize you are dealing with a molecular compound because the first element in the compound name is a nonmetal. Some molecular compounds contain hydrogen, but if you see a compound which starts with "H", you can assume it is an acid and not a molecular compound. Compounds consisting only of carbon with hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons have their own special nomenclature, so they are treated differently from other molecular compounds.
Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds
Certain rules apply to the way names of covalent compounds are written: •The more electropositive element (further left on the periodic table) is listed before the more electronegative element (further right on the periodic table).

•The second element is given an -ide ending.
•Prefixes are used to denote how many atoms of each element are present in the compound

Prefixes and Molecular Compound Names
Nonmetals may combine in a variety of ratios, so it is important that the name of a molecular compound indicates how many atoms of each type of element are present in the compound. This is accomplished using prefixes. If there is only one atom of the first element, no prefix is used. It is customary to prefix the name of one atom of the second element with mono-. For example, CO is named carbon monoxide rather than carbon oxide.
SO2 - sulfur dioxide
SF6 - sulfur hexafluoride
CCl4 - carbon tetrachloride
NI3 - nitrogen triiodide
Chemical Formula
Chemists use chemical names and formulas to describe the atomic composition of compounds. Students will learn chemical nomenclature and practice naming compounds.
Acids and Bases
Acid: a substance which when added to water produces hydrogen ions [H+]
Base: a substance which when added to water produces hydroxide ions [OH-].
react with zinc, magnesium, or aluminum and form hydrogen (H2(g))
react with compounds containing CO32- and form carbon dioxide and water
turn litmus red
taste sour (lemons contain citric acid, for example) DO NOT TASTE ACID
feel soapy or slippery
turn litmus blue
they react with most cations to precipitate hydroxides
taste bitter (ever get soap in your mouth?) DO NOT TASTE BASES
Strong acids completely dissociate in water, forming H+ and an anion. There are six strong acids. The others are considered to be weak acids. You should commit the strong acids to memory:
HCl - hydrochloric acid
HNO3 - nitric acid
H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
HBr - hydrobromic acid
HI - hydroiodic acid
HClO4 - perchloric acid
Strong bases dissociate 100% into the cation and OH- (hydroxide ion). The hydroxides of the Group I and Group II metals usually are considered to be strong bases.

LiOH - lithium hydroxide
NaOH - sodium hydroxide
KOH - potassium hydroxide
RbOH - rubidium hydroxide
CsOH - cesium hydroxide
*Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide
*Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide
*Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide
pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in an aqueous solutions. Understanding pH can help you predict the properties of a solution, including the reactions it will complete. A pH of 7 is considered neutral pH. Lower pH values indication acidic solutions while higher pH values are assigned to alkaline or basic solutions.
2.0 - Lemon Juice
3.0 - Apples
4.0 - Wine and Beer
6.6 - Milk
7.0 - Pure Water
7.4 - Human Blood
10.5 - Milk of Magnesia
8.3 - Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)
12.4 - Lime (Calcium Hydroxide)
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature,
solubility curve
Used to determine the mass of solute in 100g (100 ml) of water at a given temperature
Balancing Chemical Equations
Enter an equation of a chemical reaction and click 'Balance!'. The answer will appear below
Always use the upper case for the first character in the element name and the lower case for the second character. Examples: Fe, Au, Co, Br, C, O, N, F. Compare: Co - cobalt and CO - carbon monoxide
To enter an electron into a chemical equation use {-} or e
To enter an ion specify charge after the compound in curly brackets: {+3} or {3+} or {3}.
Example: Fe{3+} + I{-} = Fe{2+} + I2
Substitute immutable groups in chemical compounds to avoid ambiguity.
For instance equation C6H5C2H5 + O2 = C6H5OH + CO2 + H2O will not be balanced,
but XC2H5 + O2 = XOH + CO2 + H2O will
Compound states [like (s) (aq) or (g)] are not required.
If you do not know what products are enter reagents only and click 'Balance!'. In many cases a complete equation will be suggested.
Many chemical reactions release energy in the form of heat, light, or sound. These are exothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions may occur spontaneously and result in higher randomness or entropy (ΔS > 0) of the system. They are denoted by a negative heat flow (heat is lost to the surroundings) and decrease in enthalpy (ΔH < 0). In the lab, exothermic reactions produce heat or may even be explosive.
There are other chemical reactions that must absorb energy in order to proceed. These are endothermic reactions. Endothermic reactions cannot occur spontaneously. Work must be done in order to get these reactions to occur. When endothermic reactions absorb energy, a temperature drop is measured during the reaction. Endothermic reactions are characterized by positive heat flow (into the reaction) and an increase in enthalpy (+ΔH).
Endothermic and Exothermic
Unstable atomic nuclei will spontaneously decompose to form nuclei with a higher stability. The decomposition process is called radioactivity. The energy and particles which are released during the decomposition process are called radiation. When unstable nuclei decompose in nature, the process is referred to as natural radioactivity. When the unstable nuclei are prepared in the laboratory, the decomposition is called induced radioactivity
Alpha Radiation
Beta Radiation
Gamma Radiation
Alpha radiation consists of a stream of positively charged particles, called alpha particles, which have an atomic mass of 4 and a charge of +2 (a helium nucleus). When an alpha particle is ejected from a nucleus, the mass number of the nucleus decreases by four units and the atomic number decreases by two units. For example:
Beta radiation is a stream of electrons, called beta particles. When a beta particle is ejected, a neutron in the nucleus is converted to a proton, so the mass number of the nucleus is unchanged, but the atomic number increases by one unit. For example:
Gamma rays are high-energy photons with a very short wavelength (0.0005 to 0.1 nm). The emission of gamma radiation results from an energy change within the atomic nucleus. Gamma emission changes neither the atomic number nor the atomic mass. Alpha and beta emission are often accompanied by gamma emission, as an excited nucleus drops to a lower and more stable energy state.
As in a saturated solution. In this context, saturated refers to a point of maximum concentration, in which no more solute may be dissolved in a solvent.
The amount of a substance per defined space. Concentration usually is expressed in terms of mass per unit volume.
Motion is the action of changing location or position
Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone.
Vectors are quantities that are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.
Energy and Heat
Wave & Electromagnetic
Work - A force acting through a distance
The force must cause motion in the direction of the force for work to be done.

Ex: If a person pushes a wall with all of his strength - he has done no work on the wall (if the wall does not move)

Also a student carrying a book does NO work on the book because the force and motion are NOT in the same direction
Any time a mass is lifted upward work is done. The force is the weight of the object.

If a person goes up a ladder or a flight of stairs, the force is the weight of the person and the distance is the vertical distance when calculating work
Work is calculated:
W = Fd - remember the d must be in the same direction as the force.
The unit for work is the newton -meter. This is called the Joule named after James Prescott Joule.
Ex 1. What is the work when a force of 10 N pulls a 80 N box a distance of 5.0 m across the floor?
Power is the rate of doing work or how fast the work is done.
To calculate power
P = W/t
The unit of power is J/s which is renamed the watt after James Watt.
Machines make jobs easier by:
1. changing the size of the force
2. changing the direction of the
3. Increase the speed or distance
an object is moved
Effort force (E) - the force a person
puts into a machine

Resistance force - the force that
must be overcome to do the work

Mechanical Advantage (MA) - the
number of times a machine
multiplies the effort force

Actual Mechanical Advantage (AMA)
A simple machine do work with one

There are two groups of similar

1. Inclined plane, wedge, screw

2. Lever, pulley, wheel and axle
A force is a push or pull acting upon an object as a result of its interaction with another object. There are a variety of types of forces. Previously in this lesson, a variety of force types were placed into two broad category headings on the basis of whether the force resulted from the contact or non-contact of the two interacting objects.
Contact Forces
Action-at-a-Distance Forces
Frictional Force
Gravitational Force
Tension Force
Electrical Force
Normal Force
Magnetic Force
Air Resistance Force

An applied force is a force that is applied to an object by a person or another object. If a person is pushing a desk across the room, then there is an applied force acting upon the object. The applied force is the force exerted on the desk by the person.

The force of gravity is the force with which the earth, moon, or other massively large object attracts another object towards itself. By definition, this is the weight of the object. All objects upon earth experience a force of gravity that is directed "downward" towards the center of the earth. The force of gravity on earth is always equal to the weight of the object as found by the equation:
g = 9.8 N/kg (on Earth)
The normal force is the support force exerted upon an object that is in contact with another stable object. For example, if a book is resting upon a surface, then the surface is exerting an upward force upon the book in order to support the weight of the book. On occasions, a normal force is exerted horizontally between two objects that are in contact with each other. For instance, if a person leans against a wall, the wall pushes horizontally on the person.
The air resistance is a special type of frictional force that acts upon objects as they travel through the air. The force of air resistance is often observed to oppose the motion of an object. This force will frequently be neglected due to its negligible magnitude (and due to the fact that it is mathematically difficult to predict its value). It is most noticeable for objects that travel at high speeds (e.g., a skydiver or a downhill skier) or for objects with large surface areas. Air resistance
heat, explanation of heat transfer energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy is transferred
heat flows—from the hotter body to the colder
Specific Heat
The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. The relationship between heat and temperature change is usually expressed in the form shown below where c is the specific heat. The relationship does not apply if a phase change is encountered, because the heat added or removed during a phase change does not change the temperature.
A wave is a method of transferring energy from one place to another without transferring matter. Mechanical waves are those that require a medium for their transfer and include water waves, sound waves and waves in stretched strings. A disturbance at A causes a disturbance of a particle, that drags its neighbour's particles along with it until the disturbance reaches B. If the disturbance at the source continues, the wave is maintained, and if it is simple harmonic, then a plot of the displacement of the particles at a single point in time is a sine curve. This is the basic nature of a mechanical wave that is considered when looking at mechanical waves.

Electromagnetic waves consist of varying electric and magnetic fields. The two fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of travel of the wave. Each vibrates at the same frequency - the frequency of the wave. The waves all travel at the same speed in a vacuum - 2.998x108 ms-1. They are unaffected by electric and magnetic fields, and in general travel in straight lines. They are transverse, and therefore can be polarised. They can be diffracted, and can interfere with one another.
The wavelength, l, is the distance between any particle and the nearest one which is at the same stage of its motion (same displacement and velocity). In particular, it is the separation of two adjacent peaks or troughs.

The amplitude, a, of the wave is the greatest displacement of any particle from its equilibrium position.

The period, T, is the time taken for any particle to undergo a complete oscillation. It is also the time taken for any wave to travel one wavelength.

The frequency, f, is the number of cycles that any particle undergoes in one second. It is also the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point in one second.

In one second, a wave goes through f cycles. In each cycle it moves on by the wavelength (l). Therefore, in one second, the wave moves on by fl metres. There

magnetic force is the force a magnet extracts from
a magnetic pole , is where the magnet is at its strongest like magnetic poles repel one another opposite ones attract
magnets also have magnetic fields that surround them there even an magnetic field around the earth .

Electricity - associated with stationary or moving electric charges. Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter and is borne by elementary particles. In electricity the particle involved is the electron, which carries a charge designated, by convention, as negative. Thus, the various manifestations of electricity are the result of the accumulation or motion of numbers of electrons.

motion in physics
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