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Religion in Australia Pre-1945
Transcript of Religion in Australia Pre-1945
Year 11 SOR II Preliminary
Christian Denominations in the Early Days of the Colony
Samuel Marsden arrived in Sydney Cove, Australia on the 10th of March 1794
As assistant to Reverent Johnson, he was stationed at Parramatta
Governor Lachlan Macquarie allowed him to live in Parramatta, as a more convenient place for fulfilling his professional duties
Marsden had quickly and deeply committed himself to farming, although he was inexperienced in it
By 1802 he had received 201 acres in grants
In 1813, Samuel Marsden was appointed the Anglican chaplain of the Church of England
Jeremiah O'Flynn, was a Roman Catholic Priest who arrived in Australia in 1817
He claimed to Governor Macquarie that he had authority from Britain to serve as a priest in the colony
O'Flynn had no proof that he had the authority but convinced the Governor to let him stay until proof came from Britain
During this time he performed many baptisms and marriages, as well as performing Mass secretly in homes
Macquarie found out about his story, and ordered O'Flynn to be arrested and forcibly leave back to Britain
Bishop Bede Polding:
Bishop Bede Polding was the First Catholic Bishop in Australia
In 1833 an appeal was made to the pope to send a bishop to New South Wales
Bishop Polding reached Sydney in 1835, and at once set to work to organise his vast diocese
The authorities realised the good effect he was having, so at every ship load of convicts, all Catholics were placed at his disposal for a few days, during which he saw them personally
In 1842, he was granted from Rome, to be the first Archbishop of Sydney and Primate of all Australia
His return from Rome as Archbishop aroused a violent storm among the Church of England party, but his gentleness and tact disarmed all of his opponents
Major Denominations Established in the Colony
The major denominations:
Church of England (Protestant)
Non-conformists (such as Baptists, Methodist and Quakers)
Mary MacKillop (1842-1909) was born in Fitzroy, Victoria
With Father Julian Tenison Woods, she founded an Australian teaching order in 1886, the Sisters of St Joseph
They founded this in order to help the establishment of Catholic teaching facilities throughout South Australia
By the time of her death nearly one thousand women had become Sisters of St Joseph
Her influence on Catholic education was tremendous
A third of convicts on the First Fleet were Catholics
There was a rise on tension when Catholics were compelled to attend Church of England services
Real hatred existed at this time between Protestants and Catholics
Church of England (Protestant)
The Church of England had broken away from the Catholic church during the reign of King Henry VIII, and had become the State Church of England
Minister Reverend Richard Johnson was aboard the First Fleet to establish the Church of England in Australia
Richard Johnson was responsible for religious practices in the colony. He worked with convicts, guards and sailors and developed a good relationship with the Indigenous people
Church was established in Scotland
The denomination arrived on the First Fleet
It was a denomination under the Church of England
Methodist, Quakers, Baptists, Unitarians, and Congregationalists
Unofficial protestants that did not conform with the Church of England
There are only a few of these adherents among the First Fleet convicts
At a point in her life she was excommunicated from the church
Mary MacKillop recently became recognised as a saint by the Vatican, becoming Australia's first Saint, in 2010
She is remembered as one of the religious leaders who worked to establish Christianity in Australia
Most convicts on the First Fleet belonged to either the Church of England or to other Protestant denominations
About 10 per cent were Irish and more than half of these were Catholic
Christian Denominations in the Early Days of the Colony
In view of these statistics it is not suprising that Catholicism quickly became associated with being Irish, even though not all Catholics were Irish
This created a tribal mentality within the Irish Catholic community and resulted in deep mistrust of the establishment and tensions with other Christian denominations
So strong was this tribal mentality that it lasted well into the 20th century
Sectarianism refers to excessive devotion to a particular religious sect, the rivalry between religious sects and the divisions within religious faiths
Sectarianism leads to severe discrimination, persecution (persecution of Irish), and violence
Example: Donald Bradman sectarianism in the Australian cricket team, not wanting to play with Catholics
Many religious communities were eager to build their own institutions for social welfare
These were desperately needed in a large country, with governments struggling to keep up
Social welfare was provided by community sources, which were mainly religious
Christianity, as with many other religions, regard charity central to its activities
The St Vincent De Paul Society is an example of the Christianity contributing to social welfare
It was originally designed to assist the poor and less fortunate
The Australian branch of charity was established 21 years after establishment in France, in 1854
By 1895, twenty-six bases had been set up in Sydney
Rural and outback Ministries/Communities
Timeline of Significant Events in Education
1821 - 22 - Father John Therry establishes two Catholic schools (Parramatta + Sydney).
1826 - Church and School's Corporation Act of 1826. To the annoyance of the other Christian denominations, the Act set aside one seventh of the colonial land grants for Church of England schools and churches.
1829 - Catholic Relief Act 1829 or Emancipation Act permitted Catholics to be members of parliament at Westminster and had a deep impact on the English way of thinking because it effectively removed the symbolic supremacy of the Church of England in Britain.
It became possible for the provision of aid for schools to other denominations in the colony and was a catalyst to secular education in the future.
1833 - Attempts to develop a state education system began. 10 Catholic schools in the colony.
1833 - 1862 - Some govt money provided for the running of church schools under the Church Act 1836. Placed all major Christian denominations in an equal position by allocating money to them according to the size of their congregations. Church communities subsidised a dollar for dollar to a maximum of 1000 pounds. After this, successive governments refused to fund such schools but Catholics persisted.
1860s - 1960 - Catholic communities building schools in every parish despite lack of state funds. Struggled to fund their local schools and felt cheated that as taxpayers some of the money they paid was not returned in funding to church schools. Catholic education offices established to oversee general administration of schools.
1870 - By 1870, the Sisters of St. Joseph ran over 20 schools, orphanages and children’s refuges. One of the most significant contribution to Catholic education in Australia was the development of educational facilities by Sister Mary MacKillop.
1880 - NSW Public Instruction Act 1880 - State school system that developed ensured that education was free, secular and compulsory.
1960s - Government funding for Catholic/religious schools reinstated.
Public morality refers to the moral and ethical standards that were enforced in society by Christian groups
Members of these groups, were known as wowsers
Before 1945, many considered alcoholism to be one of the most serious problems facing society
An example of the changes they introduced was their campaigns to limit the sale of alcohol
Another example of public morality is them forcing the closing of pubs at 6 o'clock, until the 1960's
German Lutherans - encouraged by their home churches to travel to place. German Lutherans in Australia aimed to spread Christianity. The making of the centre Hermannsburg, encouraged Christian activity and created that sense of community. For instance, the centre provided education, provision of healthcare and shelter for Aboriginal people.
Presbyterians - The Presbyterian church made a large contribution to the life of rural Australians. In 1912, Reverend John Flynn wrote a report to the Presbyterian Church about the needs of outback Australia such as medical care and spiritual guidance and ministry. This led to the first superintendent of the Australia inland Mission (AIM).
Australia Inland Mission (AIM) - the mission involved “patrol padres”, including Flynn, that travelled throughout the outback and provided services to rural Australians. These services include: educational facilities, boarding hostels and ages care.
Royal Flying Doctor Service - Flynn also worked with Clifford peel, who served in the Air Force in World War I. Between Flynn and Peel, they began the aerial medical service that provided medical care for remote areas around the work. Flynn called this service, “a mantle of safety.” The first flight was in Cloncurry in 1928.
Judaism Origins in Australia
1788: The first Jews arrived in Australia as convicts on the First Fleet.
1817: Minyan was formed and a Cheyra Kaddisha (burial society) established.
1830s: The 1st Jewish synagogue takes place in the home of Phillip Joseph Cohen who was authorised to perform Jewish marriages. Held regular services at the synagogue. Cohen’s community were easily accepted into the Australian community, because unlike their European counterparts, they spoke English.
Islam Origins in Australia
Prior to 1788: Visits from Macassan fishermen, who were Muslims from South East Asia.
1860s: The camel transportation industry saw a significant increase in the number of Muslims arriving in Australia from mainly Pakistan and Afghanistan as camel drivers.
1882: First Islamic mosque built in Maree, South Australia