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BTEC Level 3. Skeletal System.

Structure & Function Of the Skeleton
by

Paul McIntosh

on 23 September 2016

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Transcript of BTEC Level 3. Skeletal System.

Skeletal System.
Learning Objectives:

1. All of you must know location of bones & functions of the skeleton.

2. Understand different characteristics and bones of axial and appendicular.

3. Describe the types of bones we have.
Shape.
Support
Movement.
Protection.
Produce red and white blood cells
Functions
http://www.neok12.com/Skeletal-System.htm
Axial v Appendicular?
www.prezi.com
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/appliedanatomy/2_anatomy_skeleton_rev1.shtml
Types of bones?
Thursday 7th July:
Starter Tasks:

Finish your description of 5 functions of the skeleton.
Have your print screen labelled skeleton saved in your Mr Mac folder.
Tweet and tell me what you know about the skeleton and what you don't know. Remember we looked at location of all the bones, difference between axial and appendicular skeleton and the 5 functions. Include #btecop in your tweet.
Joints & joint movement:

1. Slightly Moveable Joints: Like the ribs
2. Fixed or Immoveable joints.: Like the cranium
3. Freely Moveable Joints: Like the knee, hip & shoulder. These are called synovial joints. We have 6 groups of them.
http://www.jeffsims.net/flash/skeleton.html

Sign up to prezi and make your own prezi on:
Skeleton, joints and types of joint movement.
It must include:
1.Your labelled skeleton & functions of the skeleton.
Axial and appendicular?
2. The different types of joints in the body.
3. Sporting examples of joint movement.

The best oness will be posted on twitter!!
Look at the weblink and note down the 5 different synovial joints. What is the 6th one?
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Can you give me different examples of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction?
flexion of the knee
Dean: like the elbow
flexion of the shoulder
Skull
hi
P1: Describe the structure & function of the skeleton
P2: Describe the different types of joint & movements allowed at each.
M1: Explain the movements occuring at 2 synovial joints during 4 different types of physical activity.

Checklist:
1. Have you included all the bones?
2. Have you told me the 5 functions?
3. Have you named the types of joints?
4. Have you described the types of movement possible?
5. Have you included pictures from sport to show these movements in action?

1. Find out what the knee joint looks like:
Bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage etc.
2. Decide which pieces of equipment from the gym you think we could use to build our knee joint.
3. We are going to look at the knee from a side on view like this so think also how it would move.
4. If you have time do the same for the shoulder joint.

Structure & Function Of Skeletal System
Axial?
What is this and which bones?
Appendicular?
What is this and which bones?
Types of bones?
i. Long
ii. Short
ii. Flat
iii.Irregular
iv. Sesamoid
Functions Of The Skeleton?
Support
Protection.
Movement
Shape.
Produce red and white blood cells
cranium, clavicle, ribs, sternum, humerus,
radius, ulna, scapula, ilium, pubis, ischium,
carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella,
tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals
How many can you identify?
Vertebral Column
Scoliosis is the abnormal twisting and curvature of the spine.

It is usually first noticed by a change in appearance of the back.

What is the difference between scoliosis and kyphosis?

If you look at someone from the side, normally there are three slight front-to-back curves in the spine

- one in the neck, one in the chest section, and one in the lower back. An abnormal more pronounced front-to-back curve is called a kyphosis. This is different to a scoliosis.

Neutral Spine
Tuesday 13th September:

Lesson Outcomes:

To be able to understand the function of the skeletal system SO THAT you can explain how the system supports bones growth.
1. The correct name for the collar bone?
2. The longest bone in the body?
3. The two bones in the lower arm?
4. What function of the skeletal system do the ribs perform?
5. The top region of the vertebral column?
6. Types of bones....Long, short, flat, sesamoid.........(last one?)
7. Cranium is in the axial or appendicular skeleton.
8. The name for curvature of the spine from front to back?
9. Blood production takes place where in the body?
10. Example of a flat bone?
Process Of Bone Growth:

* All bone growth takes place at the epiphyseal plate.

Cartilage gets added, it hardens (ossifies) to then form hard tissue (bone).

*This then allows bones to increase in length
To increase the width/diameter of bones:

*Osteoblasts are the cells that form new bone on the outside of the bone.

*Osteoclasts are the cells that are responsible for breaking down bone tissue
Extended Writing Task!

Scenario:

In no more than half a side of A4 can you finish the story.......

'Once upon a time there was a very small bone called Freddie Femur....He had dreams that one day he would grow up to be the longest bone in the body....
This dream became reality because......
Osteoporosis?

What is it?

How can we prevent it happening?
http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/mbt102/bisci4online/bone/bone5.htm

1. What is the name of the part of the bone where bone growth takes place?

2. What is the name of the cells on the outside of the bone where bone growth takes place?

3. What is the name of the cells on the inside of the bones that break down bone tissue?

4. What is the scientific name for 'brittle bones?'

5. How can we use exercise to prevent brittle bones?'

6. Example of a long bone?

7. Example of a short bone?

8. Example of an irregular bone?

9. Example of a sesamoid bone?

10. What would be the purpose or function of a flatbone?
Pairs Tasks:

Working together you just produce two posters that demonstrate your knowledge on:

1. The functions of the skeleton.

2. Functions of the different types of bones.

You must work together so that you can link a function of the skeleton with a particular bone type.

For instance some flat bones serve the function of protection.
3 Classifications Of Joint:

1. Slightly Moveable (Cartilaginous) Joints: Like the ribs.
2. Fixed joints (Fibrous): Like the cranium.
3. Freely Moveable Joints: Like the knee, hip & shoulder. These are called synovial joints. We have 6 groups of them.
Types Of Synovial Joints:

* Ball and socket.(2)
* Hinge. (3)
* Pivot.
* Condyloid.
* Gliding.
* Saddle.

You and your partner identify them?
Types Of Joint Movement:
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction.
Dorsiflexion
Plantarflexion.
On your chosen area write down a question you want to ask someone on your post it. Make sure you know the answer and write it down on the bottom.
* Types of bones: Long, flat, irregular, sesamoid.
* Process of bone growth: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, epiphyseal plate.
* Functions of the skeleton: Weight bearing (Which type of bones), protection (Which type of bones?), blood production (Which type of bones?), attachment for skeletal muscle (Give an example)
*Classifiication of joints: Fixed? Slightly moveable?, Synovial?
Ball and socket, hinge, gliding, condyloid, saddle, pivot?
Joint movement: Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion? Definitions of flexion/extension, abduction/adduction?
Structure Of a Synovial Joint?
What do each of the following do? Find out for me the structure and function of each:
1. Articular/hyaline cartilage
2. Two-layered joint capsule
3. Synovial fluid.
4. Ligaments.
5. Bursa

Individual Task:

Find any sporting picture showing the hip, knee and ankle joints all moving.

Maybe football, rugby, athletics, hockey?

On your picture for just knee, ankle and hip:

1. Label the type of joint.
2. Label the articulating bones.
3. Label the type of joint movement seen. (flexion, extension etc)
4. For bonus points can you name the muscle which is the prime mover? That is the agonist muscle which is causing thhe movement to occur by contracting.


Understand how joints are designed and function SO THAT you can analyse and explain different sporting actions with the hip, knee and ankle.
1.
1. The main function of the cervical section of the vertebral column.
2. The main function of the cranium?
3. The two bones in the lower leg?
4. Articulating bones of the knee?
5. Articulating bones of the ankle?
6. Articulating bones of the hip?
7. Prime mover/agonist when we flex the knee?
8. Prime mover when we plantar flex the ankle?
9. Antagonist when we plantar flex the ankle?
10. Prime mover/agonist when we flex the hip?
Types Of Joint Movement (Easy):
1. Flexion/extension.
2. Abduction/adduction.
3. Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion.
4. Circumduction.
5. Rotation.

Types Of Joint Movement: (More challenging):
1. Horizontal flexion/horizontal extension.
2. Hyperextension.
3. Horizontal abduction/horizontal adduction.

Can you find a sporting example for each type of joint movement that involves the upper body?
i. Describe it.
ii. Name the articulating bones.
iii. Name the type of joint.
iv. Name the muscle that is the agonist. (This is the one that causes the movement to occur)

Understand the different range of movement at the synovial joints SO THAT you can analyse and explain different sporting actions with the shoulder, elbow and wrist.
Start with shoulder, elbow, wrist.
then find plantarflexion in Shearer?
With the discus look at the shoulder and wrist of the throwing arm.
Here look at the spine.
No after your 'rally coach' go back and improve your answer.
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