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Progressive Era 2

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dee wisne

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Progressive Era 2

The Age of Reform The Progressive Era Clayton Anti-trust Act Meat Inspection Act Pure Food and Drug Act Amendments to the Constitution 16th- Gave the federal government the power to lay and collect an income tax regardless of the source of that income. Federal Reserve Act Restructured banking and currency system, formed 12 Federal Reserve Banks, and extended limited government regulation. By May Chen and Dee Wisne What is the Progressive Era? The period of social activism and political reform between the 1890s and World War I where many Americans shared the idea that new changes in society were needed to cope with the economic and social changes. Three basic attitudes underlay the crusades and movements that emerged: Anger over capitalism and urban growth. Emphasis on common bonds as a way of understanding how society and the economy actually worked. They rejected social Darwinism, a belief that claimed any effort to change and better social conditions would be hopeless. Belief in the need for citizens to intervene both politically and morally to improve social conditions. 17th- Senators would not be elected by the state legislatures but rather directly elected by the people. 19th- Granted women suffrage. 1906 Removed harmful food and drugs from the market. It also regulated the manufacture and sale of drugs and food. In United States v. Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, the government tried to force the Coca-Cola company to remove caffeine from their product. Prohibition Movement Prevented debased and misbranded meat from being sold, and ensured meat products were processed under sanitary conditions. Anti-Saloon League promoting the banning of liquor in small towns. The Sherman Antitrust Act banned certain practices that reduced competition in the marketplace. Racism The Underwood Tariff Act, also known as the Revenue Act of 1913, would be enacted later. It would reimpose the income tax and lower tariff rates from 40% to 25%. NAACP- An organization grounded by W.E.B Du Bois that is still around today which works toward restoring African American rights. Niagara Movement- Group that worked against black segregation and exclusion from polls, unions, and politics. However, they failed in producing much change. Political Reform WORLD WAR I It wasn't until 1964, with the Civil Rights Act, that segregation in public places was finally eliminated. The Clayton Anti-trust Act clarified the practices, exemptions, and remedial measures. Along with this, it also prevented exclusive sale contracts, incorporated stock holding, and legalized peaceful striking. Monopolies Trusts Cartels Woman's Christian Temperance Union worked towards ending the production to the consumption of alcohol. Initiative Referendum Recall Citizens were able to bring up a subject for legislation, usually through a petition Allowed a bills or laws to be decided by a direct popular vote for approval or rejection The right to remove elected officials by popular vote Primary Allowed voters to cross party lines Federal Trade Commission was established with the goal of providing regulatory oversight of business. 1913 1914 And Much More... Muckraking Censorship committees such as the NBC reviewed many of the movies. Movies had become a large source of entertainment for the urban poor and middle class. Journalists helped fuel reform by bringing attention to urban poverty, political corruption, and other practices. The Shame of the Cities Revealed public corruption in bosses that worked with businessmen looking for contracts for gas, water, and electricity. Lincoln Steffens Ida Tarbell History of the Standard Oil Company Documented how Rockefeller destroyed competitors with unfair business practices. Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives Documented the lifestyle of New York City's poor with pictures of tenements, sweatshops, and saloons. Many progressives in the south helped strengthen Jim Crow laws. Much of the South's progressive history was linked to strengthening white supremacy. Despite these measures, prohibition was difficult to enforce. There was an increase in bootlegging, proliferation of speakeasies, and a rise in gang violence and crime. Leisure The 18th Amendment banned the manufacture, transportation and sale of alcohol In 1933, the 21th Amendment was ratified, effectively repealing the 18th Amendment. Bootlegger Progressives began to regulate commercial entertainment to improve the commercial recreation of the poor. "...There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was mouldy and white—it would be dosed with borax and glycerine, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats..." 'The Jungle' Upton Sinclair Discussion Questions Which law that emerged during the Progressive Era was affected by the publishing of 'The Jungle'? Did it help pass the law or hinder it? What do you think was Upton Sinclair's goal of writing 'The Jungle'? Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Believed the law had to account for the changing society, and the Constitution did not "embody a particular theory. Major dissenter from the conservative view of constitutional law.
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