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The Digestive System Powerpoint

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by

Gail Dualos

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of The Digestive System Powerpoint

Definition of Digestion: Types of Digestion As to Action: The Digestive Process/ Digestive Tube General Biology Digestive System Digestion is the process by which food and drink are broken down into their smallest parts so that the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy. Mouth Pharynx and Esophagus Small Intestine Large Intestine Anus Stomach Posterior opening of the digestive tube. What is the Digestive System? It is the breaking down of chemicals in the body, into a form that can be absorbed. It is also the process by which the body breaks down chemicals into smaller components that can be absorbed by the blood stream. Mechanical Digestion - food is converted into small pieces by physical means such as mastication by the teeth. Chemical Digestion - food is converted into simpler forms by the action of enzymes. As to Location: Intracellular Digestion - inside the cell particularly in the lysosomes, characteristic of unicellular organisms. Intercellular of Extracellular Digestion - outside the cell; inside the digestive tube. Composition of Extracellular
Digestion Digestive Tube - also called as "Alimentary Canal". Digestive Glands - organs that secrete juices containing enzymes for the digestion of food. Accessory Parts - includes structures that help in the digestion of food. entrance of food Oral Cavity or Buccal Cavity Cavity inside the mouth Oral Glands - secretes mucus for lubrication of food tongue - for tasting, manipulation of food teeth - found in the anterior and lateral sides of oral cavity External Parts of the Tooth Crown - exposed part root - hidden part neck - hidden between the crown and the root Internal Parts of the Tooth enamel - outermost and hardest part dentine - slightly elastic, softer part beneath the enamel Pulp Cavity - soft tissue enclosed by the dentine Cementum - thin layer of material covering the root Types of Structure & Function Incisors - chisel like teeth at the front of the mouth Canines - round pointed teeth at the corners of the mouth Pre-molars & molars - square teeth with small cups at the back of the mouth Types as to Appearance Primary Teeth - also called as the milk teeth Permanent Teeth - appear from the age of 6 & completed at the age of 13. Wisdom tooth appear as late as 25. Pharynx: Narrow space behind the oral cavity Common passageway of food and air Esophagus Narrow muscular organ between the pharynx and the stomach peristalsis movement largest & highly muscular part of the digestive tube Divisions of the Stomach: Fundus - most expanded part of the stomach Cardiac Sphincter - prevents the backward movement of food to the esophagus. Pyloric Sphincter- regulates the movement of food to the small intestine longest and most coiled part of the digestive tube. Divisions of the Small Intestine: Duodenum - anterior end; uncoiled, around 12cm long. Jejunum - middle division; coiled Ileum - posterior end posterior part of the digestive tube. Divisions of the large intestine Caecum - appendix is located Colon - middle portion; divided into ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon and sigmoid colon Rectum - posterior portion; temporary storage of undigested food. exit of fecal matter; regulated by the anal sphincter. Digestive Glands Salivary Glands Mucous Glands Gastric Glands Intestinal Glands Salivary Glands Present only in terrestrial animals Secrete saliva for lubrication of food in the oral cavity Types of Salivary Glands as to location: Parotid Gland - located behind and below the ears Submaxillary or Sub Mandibular Gland - located below the mandible Sublingual Gland - located beneath the tongue Mucous Glands found in the oral cavity, esophagus, small & large intestines secrete mucin for lubrication of food Gastric Glands found in the rugae of the stomach controlled by the medulla of the brain & by the hormone gastrin Composition of gastric juice Munic - lubrication of food HCI - converts pepsinogen into pepsin Pepsinogen - converted into pepsin by HCI, digest protein into polypeptide chains Lipase - digest fat into fatty acid & glycerol Intestinal Glands found in the intestine; secrete intestinal juice Composition of Intestinal Juice Mucin - lubrication of food Enterokinase - activates trypsinogen to trypsin Nucleases - break nucleotides into nitrogen bases, phosphoric acids & pentoses Disaccharidases- could be maltase to break maltose into glucose, lactase to break lactose into galactose & glucose or sucrase to break sucrose into glucose & fructose Pancreas found along the peripheral surface of the duodenum; secretes pancreatic juice to the duodenum through the pancreatic duct Composition of Pancreatic Juice Pancreatic Amylase - digests starch & glycerol into maltose Pancreatic Lipase - digests fats into fatty acids & glycerol Trypsinogen - converted into trypsin by the enterokinase Chemotrypsinogen - activated to chemotrypsin by trypsin, digests polypeptides to amino acids Liver secretes bile which is restored in the gall bladder Functions of the Liver storage of glycogen production of fibirinogen in blood clotting production of plasma proteins site of protein synthesis detoxification of nitrogenous wastes destruction of worn out RBC
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